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  • Author or Editor: Terry L. Fyock x
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Objective—To evaluate the in vitro susceptibility of various field isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) to gallium nitrate.

Sample—10 isolates of MAP, including 4 isolated from cattle, 2 isolated from bison, 1 isolated from an alpaca, and 3 isolated from humans.

Procedures—The in vitro susceptibility to gallium nitrate was tested by use of broth culture with detection of MAP growth by means of a nonradiometric automated detection method. For each MAP isolate, a series of 7 dilutions of gallium nitrate (concentrations ranging from 200 to 1,000μM) were tested. Gallium nitrate was considered to have caused 90% and 99% inhibition of the MAP growth when the time to detection for culture of the MAP stock solution and a specific concentration of gallium nitrate was delayed and was similar to that obtained for culture of the MAP stock solution (without the addition of gallium nitrate) diluted 1:10 and 1:100, respectively.

Results—Gallium nitrate inhibited MAP growth in all 10 isolates. The susceptibility to gallium nitrate was variable among isolates, and all isolates of MAP were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, the concentration that resulted in 90% inhibition ranged from < 200μM for the most susceptible isolates to 743μM for the least susceptible isolates.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Gallium nitrate had activity against all 10 isolates of MAP tested in vitro and could potentially be used as a prophylactic agent to aid in the control of MAP infections during the neonatal period.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate sensitivity of microbial culture of pooled fecal samples for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) in large dairy herds and assess the use of the method for estimation of MAP prevalence.

Animals—1,740 lactating cows from 29 dairy herds in California.

Procedure—Serum from each cow was tested by use of a commercial ELISA kit. Individual fecal samples were cultured and used to create pooled fecal samples (10 randomly selected fecal samples/pool; 6 pooled samples/herd). Sensitivity of MAP detection was compared between Herrold's egg yolk (HEY) agar and a new liquid culture method. Bayesian methods were used to estimate true prevalence of MAP-infected cows and herd sensitivity.

Results—Estimated sensitivity for pooled fecal samples among all herds was 0.69 (25 culture-positive pools/36 pools that were MAP positive). Sensitivity increased as the number of culture-positive samples in a pool increased. The HEY agar method detected more infected cows than the liquid culture method but had lower sensitivity for pooled fecal samples. Prevalence of MAP-infected cows was estimated to be 4% (95% probability interval, 2% to 6%) on the basis of culture of pooled fecal samples. Herd-level sensitivity estimate ranged from 90% to 100% and was dependent on prevalence in the population and the sensitivity for culture of pooled fecal samples.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of pooled fecal samples from 10 cows was a cost-effective tool for herd screening and may provide a good estimate of the percentage of MAP-infected cows in dairy herds with a low prevalence of MAP. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1061–1070)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research