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  • Author or Editor: Terry J. Engelken x
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OBJECTIVE To assess the association between a commercially available vaccine against Moraxella bovis and cumulative incidence of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) from processing to weaning (primary objective) and body weight at weaning (secondary objective).

DESIGN Randomized blinded controlled trial.

ANIMALS 214 calves (≥ 2 months of age) born in the spring of 2015 at an Iowa State University cow-calf research unit with no visible lesions or scars on either eye.

PROCEDURES Calves were randomly allocated to receive SC administration of a single dose of a commercial vaccine against M bovis (112 enrolled and 110 analyzed) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (111 enrolled and 104 analyzed). Calves were monitored for signs of IBK from treatment to weaning, and body weight at weaning was recorded. People involved in calf enrollment and outcome assessment were blinded to treatment group assignment. Cumulative incidence of IBK and weaning weight were compared between vaccinated and unvaccinated calves; the effect measure was the risk ratio and mean difference, respectively.

RESULTS IBK was detected in 65 (59.1%) vaccinated calves and 62 (59.6%) unvaccinated calves (unadjusted risk ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.79 to 1.24) during the study period. No significant difference in weaning weights was identified between vaccinated and unvaccinated calves (unadjusted effect size, 4.40 kg [9.68 lb]; 95% confidence interval, −3.46 to 12.25 kg [−7.61 to 26.95 lb]).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that the commercially available M bovis vaccine was not effective in reducing the cumulative incidence of IBK or increasing weaning weight in beef calves.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To identify herd-level risk factors for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in nursing beef calves.

Design—Population-based cross-sectional survey.

Sample—2,600 US cow-calf producers in 3 Eastern and 3 Plains states.

Procedures—The associations of herd characteristics with BRD detection in calves and cumulative BRD treatment incidence were determined.

Results—459 (177%) surveys were returned and met the inclusion criteria; 48% and 52% of these surveys were completed by producers in Plains and Eastern states, respectively. Mean (95% confidence interval) number of animals in herds in Plains and Eastern states were 102 (77 to 126) and 48 (40 to 56), respectively. Bovine respiratory disease had been detected in ≥ 1 calf in 21% of operations; ≥ 1 calf was treated for BRD and ≥ 1 calf died because of BRD in 89.2% and 46.4% of operations in which calf BRD was detected, respectively. Detection of BRD in calves was significantly associated with large herd size, detection of BRD in cows, and diarrhea in calves. Calving season length was associated with BRD in calves in Plains states but not Eastern states. Cumulative incidence of BRD treatment was negatively associated with large herd size and examination of cows to detect pregnancy and positively associated with calving during the winter, introduction of calves from an outside source, offering supplemental feed to calves, and use of an estrous cycle synchronization program for cows.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study indicated factors associated with calf BRD risk; modification of these factors could potentially decrease the incidence of BRD in nursing calves.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of meloxicam administration before long-distance transport on inflammatory mediators and leukocyte function of cattle at feedlot arrival.

ANIMALS 60 healthy yearling beef steers.

PROCEDURES Single-source steers were assigned to a transported (n = 40) or nontransported (20) group. Then, half of the steers within each group were assigned to receive meloxicam (1 mg/kg, PO) or a lactose placebo (1 bolus/steer, PO). All steers were transported approximately 1,300 km overnight to a feedlot; however, the nontransported group was moved before treatment (meloxicam or placebo) administration and allowed a 17-day acclimation period, whereas the transported group was moved immediately after treatment administration on day −1. Blood samples for measurement of inflammatory mediators and leukocyte function were collected from all steers on days −1, 0, and 3.

RESULTS For steers that received meloxicam, mean plasma meloxicam concentration for the transported group was significantly greater than that for the nontransported group on day 0. For steers that received the placebo, mean haptoglobin-matrix metalloproteinase-9 complex for the transported group was significantly greater than that for the nontransported group on day 0. Mean haptoglobin concentration, neutrophil L-selectin intensity, and polymorphonuclear leukocyte count for the transported group were significantly greater than those for the nontransported group. Mean substance P concentration for nontransported steers that received meloxicam was significantly lower than that for the other 3 treatment groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated meloxicam administration to healthy steers immediately before long-distance transport did not significantly mitigate the effects of transport-induced stress on leukocyte function or inflammatory markers.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research