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  • Author or Editor: Ted S. Stashak x
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SUMMARY

Lactase, maltase, sucrase, and alkaline phosphatase activities were determined in the intestinal mucosa from 3 locations in the small intestine and 4 locations in the large intestine 1 year after extensive large-colon resection (group 1; n = 5) and 1 year after sham operation (group 2; n = 3) in horses.

Lactase, maltase, and sucrase activities were similar (P > 0.05) between group-1 and group-2 horses in all locations measured in the intestinal tract. Alkaline phosphatase activity in the remaining large colon of group-1 horses was significantly (P < 0.05) greater than the activity in the large colon of group-2 horses. Decreased apparent digestion of phosphorus and a negative phosphorus balance are persistent features of large-colon resection in horses. Increases in alkaline phosphatase activity in the remaining colon of horses with extensive large-colon resection may be a specific functional adaptive mechanism that attempts to counteract the derangements in phosphorus metabolism.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Light microscopy, morphometry, and scanning electron microscopy were used to examine the mucosal morphologic features of 7 intestinal specimens (3 from the small intestine; 4 from the large intestine) from each of 8 horses 1 year after sham operation (group 1; n = 3) or extensive large-colon resection (group 2; n = 5). Qualitative light microscopic examination did not reveal differences between groups, but morphometry revealed significantly (P < 0.05) greater intercrypt area and distance in horses with colon resection and this was most pronounced in the cecum and remaining right ventral and dorsal colon. Crypt area and depth were similar for horses with colon resection and sham operation (P > 0.05). Qualitative evaluation of the scanning electron micrographs revealed more prominent crypt orifices in the large intestine of horses with colon resection. The larger intercrypt distance in the colon of horses with resection was not an obvious feature of the qualitative evaluation of the surface with scanning electron microscopy. Small intestinal morphologic features were variable and significant differences were not detected between horses with sham operation and colon resection. Horses adapted to extensive large-colon resection within 1 year by increasing the absorptive (intercrypt) surface area of the remaining large intestine.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

A survey of 1,965 equine colic cases was conducted from August 1985 to July 1986 at 10 equine referral centers located throughout the United States. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a multivariable model for the need for surgery. Two-thirds of the cases were randomly selected for model development (1,336), whereas the remaining cases (629) were used only for subsequent validation of the model. If a lesion requiring surgical correction was found at either surgery or necropsy, the case for the horse was classified as surgical, otherwise the case was classified as medical. Only variables that were significant (P < 0.05) in an initial bivariable screening procedure were considered in the model development. Because of the large number of missing values in the data set, only variables for which there were < 400 missing values were considered in the multivariable analysis. A multivariable logistic regression model was constructed by use of a stepwise algorithm. The model used 640 cases and included variables: rectal findings, signs of abdominal pain, peripheral pulse strength, and abdominal sounds. The likelihood ratio for surgery was calculated for each horse in the validation data set, using the logistic regression equation. Using Bayes theorem, the posttest probability was calculated, using the likelihood ratio as the test odds and the prevalence of surgery cases (at each institution) as an estimate of the pretest odds. A Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit χ2 statistic indicated that the model fit the validation data set poorly, as demonstrated by the large χ2 value of 26.7 (P < 0.001). However, when the expected proportion of surgical cases was compared with the observed proportion of surgical cases in each of 10 increments of risk, the model's performance appeared satisfactory.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the outcome of horses with large fragments of the extensor process of the distal phalanx that were removed by use of arthrotomy.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—14 horses with large fragments of the extensor process of the distal phalanx.

Procedure—Medical records for horses with large fragments of the extensor process that were removed by use of arthrotomy were reviewed. Data retrieved from medical records included signalment, use of horse, affected limb, lameness history, lameness examination findings, radiographic findings, surgical technique, and outcome. Follow-up evaluation was obtained by telephone interview.

Results—Most affected horses were < 5 years old and had a history of chronic lameness. Lameness grade ranged from 1/5 to 4/5. Fragments involved 20 to 45% of the dorsopalmar articular surface of the distal phalanx. Eight of 14 horses had a successful outcome. Outcome was not associated with age, duration or severity of lameness, or fragment size.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Despite involvement of a large portion of the articular surface and use of arthrotomy, joint instability and permanent soft tissue injury was not a problem in most horses. Outcome may be improved by selection of horses with lameness of < 2 years' duration and careful management after surgery. A fair prognosis may be anticipated for removal of large fragments of the extensor process via arthrotomy. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000; 217:1351–1355)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the clinical applications, short and long-term survival, and complications of using transfixation pin casts for treatment of comminuted phalangeal fractures in adult horses.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—20 horses.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed to obtain information regarding signalment, fracture location, treatment methods, complications, and short-term survival (discharge from hospital). Long-term follow-up information was obtained via contact with owners or trainers.

Results—12 fractures were in a hind limb, and 8 were in a forelimb. Fourteen fractures occurred in a middle phalanx, and 6 occurred in a proximal phalanx. Eleven fractures were treated with internal fixation combined with transfixation pin casts, and 9 fractures were treated with transfixation pin casts alone. Transfixation pin casts were maintained for a mean of 52 days (median, 49 days; range, 1 to 131 days). Fourteen (70%) horses were discharged from the hospital, whereas 6 (30%) were euthanized during the treatment period. Reasons for euthanasia included secondary fracture of the third metacarpal or metatarsal bone, avascularity of the distal aspect of the limb associated with an open fracture, and displacement of the fracture after transfixation pin cast removal. A significantly greater number of horses was discharged from the hospital when the transfixation pin cast was maintained for > 40 days, compared with those in which the transfixation pin cast was maintained for < 40 days.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that horses should be maintained in a transfixation pin cast for a minimum of 40 days, as this was associated with an increase in short-term survival without an increased risk of catastrophic failure.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess the long-term clinical outcome of horses with distal tarsal osteoarthritis (OA) in which a 3-drill-tract technique was used to induce arthrodesis of the affected joints, identify any preoperative or operative factors associated with outcome, and describe any complications associated with the technique.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—54 horses.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for information on signalment, use, history, physical and lameness examination findings, surgical technique, and postoperative care. Radiographs were examined, and severity of OA was graded. Follow-up information was obtained through telephone interviews with owners at least 13 months after the procedure.

Results—32 (59%) horses had a successful outcome, 6 (11%) improved but were not sound after surgery, and 16 (30%) did not improve following surgery. Outcome was negatively associated with the previous use of intra-articular injections. Few postoperative complications were evident.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that distal tarsal OA in horses can be successfully treated by means of distal tarsal arthrodesis with a 3-drill-tract technique. Horses with advanced distal tarsal OA are likely to have poorer outcomes, and the procedure will likely be of minimal benefit in horses with concomitant causes of hind limb lameness prior to surgery and in horses with preexisting proximal intertarsal joint disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003; 223;1800–1805)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association