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Case Description—A 43-kg (95-lb) 4-year-old neutered male mixed-breed dog was evaluated because of a 2-day history of dysuria.

Clinical Findings—Radiography and ultrasonography revealed hydronephrosis, hydroureter, and radiolucent, hyperechoic uroliths in the right kidney and ureter and the urinary bladder. Serum bile acids concentration was within the reference interval.

Treatment and Outcome—The uroliths in the bladder and right ureter were surgically removed and submitted for analysis. They were initially identified as urate uroliths; however, results of further analysis indicated uroliths were composed of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (2,8-DHA), and 2,8-DHA was identified in a urine sample of the dog. Allopurinol was prescribed for the dog, and a purine-restricted diet was recommended.

Clinical Relevance—2,8-DHA uroliths are extremely rare in humans and dogs. Such uroliths may be underdiagnosed in humans because of variability of clinical signs and difficulty in differentiating 2,8-DHA and urate uroliths and crystalluria. Uroliths composed of 2,8-DHA may be misdiagnosed as urate uroliths in dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To characterize clinical and epidemiologic features of SARS-CoV-2 in companion animals detected through both passive and active surveillance in the US.


204 companion animals (109 cats, 95 dogs) across 33 states with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections between March 2020 and December 2021.


Public health officials, animal health officials, and academic researchers investigating zoonotic SARS-CoV-2 transmission events reported clinical, laboratory, and epidemiologic information through a standardized One Health surveillance process developed by the CDC and partners.


Among dogs and cats identified through passive surveillance, 94% (n = 87) had reported exposure to a person with COVID-19 before infection. Clinical signs of illness were present in 74% of pets identified through passive surveillance and 27% of pets identified through active surveillance. Duration of illness in pets averaged 15 days in cats and 12 days in dogs. The average time between human and pet onset of illness was 10 days. Viral nucleic acid was first detected at 3 days after exposure in both cats and dogs. Antibodies were detected starting 5 days after exposure, and titers were highest at 9 days in cats and 14 days in dogs.


Results of the present study supported that cats and dogs primarily become infected with SARS-CoV-2 following exposure to a person with COVID-19, most often their owners. Case investigation and surveillance that include both people and animals are necessary to understand transmission dynamics and viral evolution of zoonotic diseases like SARS-CoV-2.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association