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  • Author or Editor: Tarini V. Ullal x
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OBJECTIVE To validate the use of high-resolution manometry (HRM) in awake, healthy dogs and compare the effects of bolus type (liquid vs solid) and drug treatment (saline [0.9% NaCl] solution [SS] vs cisapride) on esophageal pressure profiles.

ANIMALS 8 healthy dogs.

PROCEDURES In a crossover study, each dog received SS (10 mL) IV, and HRM was performed during oral administration of 10 boluses (5 mL each) of water or 10 boluses (5 g each) of canned food. Cisapride (1 mg/kg in 60 mL of SS) was subsequently administered IV to 7 dogs; HRM and bolus administration procedures were repeated. Two to 4 weeks later, HRM was repeated following administration of SS and water and food boluses in 4 dogs. Pressure profile data were obtained for all swallows, and 11 outcome variables were statistically analyzed.

RESULTS After SS administration, predicted means for the esophageal contractile integral were 850.4 cm/mm Hg/s for food boluses and 660.3 cm/mm Hg/s for water boluses. Predicted means for esophageal contraction front velocity were 6.2 cm/s for water boluses and 5.6 cm/s for food boluses after SS administration. Predicted means for residual LES pressure were significantly higher following cisapride administration.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that HRM was feasible and repeatable in awake healthy dogs of various breeds and sizes. Stronger esophageal contractions and faster esophageal contraction velocity occurred during solid bolus and liquid bolus swallows, respectively. Lower esophageal sphincter pressure increased significantly following cisapride administration. Esophageal contractions and bolus transit latency should be further evaluated by HRM in clinically dysphagic dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To identify prognostic indicators and inflammatory markers associated with nonsurvival in dogs with gallbladder mucoceles (GBMs) following cholecystectomy and to evaluate C-reactive protein (CRP) and haptoglobin concentrations in dogs with GBMs compared to healthy controls.


25 dogs that underwent cholecystectomy for removal of GBM and 20 healthy control dogs.


A prospective, multicenter cohort study. Survival outcomes to hospital discharge and 2 weeks postdischarge were recorded from medical records. Laboratory variables, inflammatory markers (CRP and haptoglobin), and 25-hydroxyvitamin(OH) D (25[OH]D) concentrations were measured preoperatively. Associations between signalment, clinicopathologic variables, acute patient physiologic and laboratory evaluation (APPLEFAST) scores, inflammatory markers, 25(OH)D concentration, and survival were analyzed using logistic regression.


76% (19/25) and 68% (17/25) of dogs survived to hospital discharge and 2 weeks postdischarge, respectively. For each additional year of age, the odds of nonsurvival in hospital and 2 weeks postdischarge increased by 2.2 (P = .01; 95% CI, 1.2 to 5.0) and 1.7 (P = .04; 95% CI, 1.0 to 3.2), respectively. Intraoperative systolic blood pressure ≤ 65 mm Hg increased the probability of nonsurvival in hospital (P < .04). Gallbladder perforation, APPLEFAST scores, and preoperative serum concentrations of CRP, haptoglobin, and 25(OH)D were not associated with survival. Serum CRP and haptoglobin concentrations were greater in dogs with GBM compared to controls (P < .001).


Increasing age and intraoperative systolic blood pressure ≤ 65 mm Hg were associated with nonsurvival in dogs with GBM undergoing cholecystectomy. Serum CRP, haptoglobin, and 25(OH)D were not associated with nonsurvival postcholecystectomy in this sample population.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association