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Summary

In 1992, 49 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico reported 8,644 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 1 case in a human being to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Almost 92% (7,912 cases) were wild animals, the largest number of wild animals ever reported, whereas 8.5% (732 cases) were domestic species. The total number of reported cases increased 23.9% over that of 1991 (6,975 cases), with most of the increase resulting from continued spread of rabies in raccoons. The 2 epizootics of rabies in raccoons (Northeastern/mid-Atlantic region and Southeastern region) are now approachig convergence in North Carolina (49 reported cases of rabies in 1992). Massachusetts (57 cases), New York City (41 cases), and New Hampshire (10 cases) became new additions to the epizootic in the Northeast, with Maine, Rhode Island, and Vermont the only states in the region without cases associated with the raccoon strain of rabies. The state of New York (including New York City) reported 1,761 cases (79% in raccoons) of rabies, the largest number ever recorded for any state. Increases attributable to epizootics of rabies in other species were reported by Alaska (25 cases in 1992, compared with 12 in 1991 mainly attributable to rabies in foxes) and Kansas (374 cases in 1992, compared with 63 in 1991, mainly attributable to rabies in skunks). Reported cases of rabies in coyotes (75) increased 50% over those for 1991 (50 cases). In the southern portion of Texas (reporting 70 of the 75 cases in coyotes), there was a similar increase (55%) in reported cases of rabies in dogs, whereas nationally, reported cases of rabies in dogs (182) increased 17%. Twenty states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico reported decreases in rabies in animals in 1992, compared with 16 states in 1991. Hawaii was the only state that did not report a case of rabies in 1992.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

In 1995, 49 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico reported 7,877 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 4 cases in human beings to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nearly 92% (7,247 cases) were wild animals, whereas 8% (630 cases) were domestic species. The total number of reported cases decreased 4.2% from that of 1994 (8,230 cases). Most of the decline was the result of 17.1% fewer reported cases of rabies in raccoons in areas of the Northeast, where rabies is now enzootic rather than epizootic. Exceptions to this decline were detected in states where the virus has only recently entered raccoon populations or where ongoing epizootics persist. States experiencing increasing epizootic activity associated with this variant include Maine (3 cases in 1993 to 101 cases in 1995), North Carolina (9 cases in 1990 to 466 cases in 1995), Rhode Island (1 case in 1993 to 324 cases in 1995), and Vermont (45 cases in 1993 to 179 cases in 1995). The raccoon variant of the rabies virus is now present in Alabama, Pennsylvania, Vermont, West Virginia, and all Atlantic Seaboard states from Florida to Maine. In Ohio, this variant, last detected in 1992 as a single case, was again detected in 1996. Epizootics of rabies in foxes in west central Texas and in dogs and coyotes in southern Texas attributable to canine variants continue, with this state reporting 137 rabid foxes, 55 rabid dogs, and 80 of the 83 cases in coyotes during 1995. The number of rabid bats (787) increased by almost 25%, with cases reported by 47 of the 48 contiguous states. Nationally, reported cases of rabies in cattle (136) and cats (288) increased by 22.5 and 7.9%, respectively, whereas cases in dogs (146) decreased by 4.6%. Cats continued to be the domestic animal most frequently reported rabid. The cases of rabies reported in human beings were all caused by viral variants associated with bats. Eighteen states and Puerto Rico reported decreases in rabies in animals in 1995, compared with 28 states and the District of Columbia in 1994. Hawaii was the only state that did not report a case of rabies in 1995.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

In 1993, 49 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico reported 9,495 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Greater than 93% (8,889 cases) were wild animals, whereas 6.4% (606 cases) were domestic species. The total number of reported cases increased 9.9% over that of 1992 (8,645 cases), with most of the increase resulting from continued spread of rabies in raccoons (37.1% increase in reported cases over 1992). The 2 epizootics of rabies in raccoons (Northeastern/mid-Atlantic and Southeastern regions) approach convergence in North Carolina (106 cases of rabies in 1993, compared with 49 in 1992). Maine, Rhode Island, and Vetmont remained the only New England states without reported cases associated with the raccoon variant of the rabies virus. New York reported 2,747 cases of rabies, the largest number of cases ever reported during a single year by any state. Increases in reported cases of rabies in Texas and 8 other geographically dispersed states were attributed mainly to larger numbers of reported cases of rabies in bats. Texas reported 71 of the 74 cases in coyotes during 1993 (70 of 75 cases in 1992). Nationally, reported cases of rabies in dogs (130) and cattle (130) each decreased by 29% in 1993, whereas cats (291 cases in 1993, compared with 290 in 1992) continued to be the domestic animal most frequently reported rabid. Twenty-two states and Puerto Rico reported decreases in rabies in animals in 1993, compared with 20 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico in 1992. Hawaii was the only state that did not report a case of rabies in 1993.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

In 1994, 48 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico reported 8,224 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 6 cases in human beings to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nearly 93% (7,632 cases) were wild animals, whereas 7% (592 cases) were domestic species. The total number of reported cases decreased 13.4% from that of 1993 (9,498 cases), with most of the decline resulting from 19.2% fewer cases of rabies in raccoons. Two previously described epizootics of rabies involving the raccoon variant of the rabies virus have converged in North Carolina, and the resulting region is now continuous from Alabama and Florida in the South to Maine in the North. Epizootics of rabies in foxes in west central Texas and in dogs and coyotes in southern Texas continue to expand, with this state reporting 144 rabid foxes, 53 rabid dogs, and 77 of the 85 cases in coyotes during 1994. Maine and New Hampshire reported cases of rabies in foxes (6 and 9, respectively) for the first time in 10 years. Nationally, reported cases of rabies in dogs (153) increased by 17.7%, whereas cases in cattle (111) and cats (267) decreased by 14.6 and 8.3%, respectively. Cats continued to be the domestic animal most frequently reported rabid. Twenty-eight states and the District of Columbia reported decreases in rabies in animals in 1994, compared with 22 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico in 1993. Hawaii and Nebraska were the only states that did not report cases of rabies in 1994.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

In 1991, 49 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico reported 6,972 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings to the Centers for Disease Control. Ninety-one percent (6,354 cases) were wild animals, whereas 8.9% (618 cases) were domestic species. The total number of reported cases of rabies increased 42.9% over that of 1990 (4,881 cases), with most of the increase resulting from continued spread of the epizootic of rabies in raccoons in the mid-Atlantic and northeastern states. Large increases in cases of rabies in animals were reported from Connecticut (200 cases in 1991, compared with 3 in 1990, an increase of 6,567%), Delaware (197 cases in 1991, compared with 44 in 1990, an increase of 348%), New York (1,030 cases in 1991, compared with 242 in 1990, an increase of 326%), and New Jersey (994 cases in 1991, compared with 469 in 1990, an increase of 112%). Other noteworthy increases were reported by Wyoming (96.4%), Texas (69.7%), California (41.3%), Oklahoma (33.1%), Minnesota (31.4%), Georgia (26.7%), and Maryland (23.7%). Hawaii reported 1 imported case of rabies in a bat. Only 16 states reported decreases in rabies in animals in 1991, compared with 30 in 1990. Pennsylvania and Iowa reported decreases of 40.6% and 27.4%, respectively. Rhode Island was the only state that did not report a case of rabies in 1991.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association