Objective—To determine prevalence of splenic hemangiosarcoma in anemic dogs with a splenic mass and hemoperitoneum requiring a transfusion and to identify factors that could differentiate between dogs with hemangiosarcoma and dogs with other splenic masses at the time of hospital admission.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedures—Medical records, blood bank logs, and histologic reports of dogs with a splenic mass and hemoperitoneum that required a transfusion between 2003 and 2005 were reviewed. Dogs that received a transfusion of packed RBCs, were splenectomized, and had a definitive histologic diagnosis were included.
Results—Signalment of dogs was similar to that in other reports. Malignant splenic neoplasia was identified in 54 of 71 (76.1%) dogs, whereas 17 of 71 (23.9%) dogs had a benign splenic lesion. Of 54 dogs with malignant splenic neoplasia, 50 (92.6% [70.4% of all dogs]) had splenic hemangiosarcoma. In addition, dogs with splenic hemangiosarcoma had significantly lower total solids (TS) concentrations and platelet counts at admission. Finally, hemoperitoneum was strongly associated with a diagnosis of splenic hemangiosarcoma.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In this clinical population of dogs, prevalence of hemangiosarcoma was higher than in other studies. Dogs with hemangiosarcoma in this study had significantly lower TS concentrations and platelet counts at the time of admission, compared with values for dogs with other splenic masses. No other markers were useful in differentiating dogs with hemangiosarcoma. It is important to discuss the prevalence of and poor prognosis associated with hemangiosarcoma with owners when they are contemplating whether to proceed with treatment.
To evaluate the time-course of ampicillin-sulbactam and percentage of time that its concentration is above a given MIC (T% > MIC) in dogs with septic peritonitis when delivered as either a continuous infusion (CI) or intermittent infusion (II).
11 dogs with septic peritonitis.
Dogs were randomized to receive ampicillin-sulbactam as either CI or II. Continuous infusions were delivered as a 50 mg/kg bolus IV followed by a rate of 0.1 mg/kg/min. Intermittent infusions were administered as 50 mg/kg IV q8h. Serum ampicillin-sulbactam concentrations were measured at hours 0, 1, 6, and every 12 hours after until patients were transitioned to an oral antimicrobial equivalent. All other care was at the discretion of the attending clinician. Statistical analysis was used to determine each patient's percentage of time T% > MIC for 4 MIC breakpoints (0.25, 1.25, 8, and 16 µg/mL).
No dogs experienced adverse events related to ampicillin-sulbactam administration. Both CI and II maintained a T% > MIC of 100% of MIC 0.25 µg/mL and MIC 1.25 µg/mL. The CI group maintained a higher T% > MIC for MIC 8 µg/mL and MIC 16 µg/mL; however, these differences did not reach statistical significance (P = .15 and P = .12, respectively).
This study could not demonstrate that ampicillin-sulbactam CI maintains a greater T% > MIC in dogs with septic peritonitis than II; however, marginal differences were noted at higher antimicrobial breakpoints. While these data support the use of antimicrobial CI in septic and critically ill patients, additional prospective trials are needed to fully define the optimal doses and the associated clinical responses.