To evaluate income and family planning decisions of American College of Zoological Medicine (ACZM) diplomates.
98 ACZM diplomates.
An online survey was sent to 201 ACZM diplomates. Participation was voluntary.
98 (49%) diplomates responded to the survey. The most commonly reported income categories were $90,000 to $94,999, $100,000 to $104,999, and $110,000 to $114,999. Overall, the mean of the salary-category midpoint responses was $105,357 but was $122,917 for those in academia and $94,508 for those working in zoos and aquaria. When incomes of males and females were matched (24 pairs matched for gender and age), no difference in income was observed. There were no significant differences in income between males and females with and without children. Diplomates who did not complete a residency had significantly higher incomes than diplomates who did. Sixteen of 21 (76%) females and 9 of 19 (47%) males reported delaying having children because of their career. Additionally, a higher percentage of females with children (13/20 [65%]) than males with children (3/19 [16%]) felt that having children had had a negative effect on their career. Thirty-five of 41 (85%) females without children and 4 of 9 (44%) males without children thought having children would have negatively affected their careers.
Although substantial differences in income between female and male ACZM diplomates were not identified, differences in family planning and perceptions of the impact of having children on their careers did exist.
To use CT-derived measurements to calculate a shape constant (K constant) and create a formula to calculate body surface area (BSA) on the basis of body weight in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).
12 adult client-owned bearded dragons that underwent CT between December 4, 2019, and April 2, 2020.
Each bearded dragon in this prospective cohort study underwent physical examination, body weight measurement, and CT. A 3-D surface model was then reconstructed from CT data with available software and used for BSA calculations. Animals were considered collectively and grouped by sex and age. Nonlinear regression analysis of BSA versus body weight was performed, and a species-specific formula was derived for calculating BSA in bearded dragons.
Mean age, body weight, and CT-derived BSA were 2.1 years, 356 g, and 580 cm2. The calculated K constant was 11.6 (R2 = 0.994; SE = 0.275) for the 12 bearded dragons, and the CT-derived BSA formula was as follows: BSA in cm2 = 11.6 × (body weight in g)2/3. The K constant differed substantially for bearded dragons grouped by age (12.1 for younger [between 1 and ≤ 2 years of age; n = 8] vs 10.9 for older [> 2 years of age; 4] animals) but did not differ on the basis of sex.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that because the K constant for bearded dragons in the present study was larger than the preexisting K constant of 10 used for reptiles or the various K constants established for some companion mammals, doses of chemotherapeutic drugs needed to treat affected bearded dragons may be higher than previously thought.
2 male and 3 female adult bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) were evaluated at the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine's Exotic Animal Medicine Service between September 2018 and October 2019 because of severe lymphocytosis.
All 5 bearded dragons had nonspecific clinical signs, including lethargy, poor appetite, ocular discharge, and weight loss. Clinicopathologic testing revealed extremely high lymphocyte counts with morphological findings consistent with lymphocytic leukemia.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
All 5 patients were treated with lomustine, prednisolone, and antimicrobials. In addition, 1 or 2 doses of L-asparaginase were administered when the drug was available. Partial remission was achieved in all 5 patients. One patient, after disease progression was documented, was treated with cyclophosphamide and achieved a second partial remission. One of the 5 patients was still alive and continuing to receive chemotherapy at the time of final follow-up 244 days after the initial diagnosis. Survival times (ie, times from initial diagnosis to euthanasia) for the other 4 patients were 57, 157, 330, and 416 days.
The present report represented the first description of lomustine as a primary chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of lymphocytic leukemia in bearded dragons and provided information on response to treatment, adverse effects, and survival times.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the microbial integrity of preservative-free cyclodextrin-based alfaxalone in a multiple-use system.
SAMPLE 22 vials of preservative-free alfaxalone.
PROCEDURES 2 storage conditions (room temperature, 22°C; refrigerated temperature, 4°C) and 3 handling techniques (closed system transfer device, nonclosed dispensing pin, and manufacturer-supplied vial stopper) comprised 6 treatment groups (3 replicates/group). An aliquot (0.5 mL) was withdrawn from each vial daily for 14 days. Samples were immediately inoculated into tryptic soy broth and incubated at 36°C for 24 hours; samples were subcultured onto 5% Columbia sheep blood agar and incubated for 48 hours. Isolated colonies were evaluated for identification.
RESULTS There was no evidence of microbial contamination of vials stored for 7 days in refrigeration and handled with a protected port (closed system transfer device or nonclosed dispensing pin).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The US FDA prohibits the use of alfaxalone beyond 6 hours after the vial stopper is broached (punctured), as mandated for a preservative-free injectable medication. Findings for the study reported here supported the use of alfaxalone for 7 days when refrigerated and handled with a single puncture of the stopper by use of a protected port (closed system transfer device or nonclosed dispensing pin). This would appear to be a practical alternative for an injectable anesthetic. It would minimize drug waste and the subsequent environmental impact for disposal of unused drug and allow standardization of storage and handling protocols for alfaxalone use in veterinary practices across the United States.
To use CT measurements to define the body surface area (BSA) formula in American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) and calculate the species-specific shape constant (K) to suggest chemotherapeutic doses.
12 American bullfrogs owned by the North Carolina State College of Veterinary Medicine Department of Laboratory Animal Resources underwent CT scans without anesthesia or sedation in November 2022.
As part of this prospective study, each American bullfrog underwent a complete physical exam and CT scan. 3-D surface models were created using CT data, and the resulting measurements were used for BSA calculations. Animals were grouped by sex. Nonlinear regression analysis of BSA versus body weight was performed, and a species-specific formula was derived for calculating BSA in American bullfrogs.
The mean body weight of the bullfrogs was 354 grams. The mean CT-derived BSA was 414.92 cm2. The calculated K constant was 8.28 for the 12 American bullfrogs, and the CT-derived BSA formula was BSA in cm2 = 8.28 X (body weight in g)2/3. The K constant was 8.07 for females and 8.44 for males and was not significantly different between sexes (P = .5).
Results indicated that the species-specific K constant for American bullfrogs is 8.28. This is the first calculated K constant that exists for amphibians to our knowledge.
To determine the K-constant for body surface area calculation from body weight in corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) through the use of computed tomography (CT) measurements.
12 adult corn snakes held by North Carolina State University for research purposes underwent CT between November 2022 and January 2023.
Each snake had a CT scan, physical examination, and body weight measurement. CT images were uploaded into software able to perform 3-D reconstruction and measure body surface area. The species-specific K-constant was determined using nonlinear regression analysis between body surface area and (body weight in grams)2/3.
The mean body weight of the 12 adult corn snakes was 228 g, with a mean body surface area of 505.1 cm2. The calculated K-constant was 13.6 (P < .001). The resulting formula for body surface area in corn snakes is BSA in cm2 = 13.6 X (body weight in grams)2/3.
The body surface area formula developed for corn snakes will allow for improved dosing accuracy for medications with low therapeutic safety margins. Additional pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies are necessary to determine the safety and efficacy of individual medications.