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Abstract

Objective—To test a modified saline (0.9% NaCl) solution joint washing (lavage) technique that includes the use of vitamin B12 as an internal marker for the evaluation of synovial fluid dilution in lavage samples from canine joints.

Sample Population—9 plasma samples obtained from blood samples of 9 healthy dogs and 9 synovial fluid samples aspirated from stifle joints of 9 cadaveric dogs.

Procedure—Photometric absorbances of 25% vitamin B12 solution, canine synovial fluid, and canine plasma were measured in a spectrophotometer to establish an optimal wavelength for analysis. Canine synovial fluid and plasma samples were mixed with the 25% vitamin B12 solution to obtain 1%, 3%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 50% solutions of synovial fluid or plasma. Diluted synovial fluid and plasma samples were used to simulate joint lavage samples and to examine the possible interference of these substances (synovial fluid or plasma) with the absorbance of the 25% vitamin B12 solution in photometric analysis.

Results—The optimal wavelength was found to be at 550 nm. Canine synovial fluid and plasma samples did not interfere with the absorbance measurements of the 25% vitamin B12 solution up to a 50% dilution of plasma or synovial fluid.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The modified saline solution joint lavage method with the use of a 25% vitamin B12 solution as an internal standard provides an accurate and reliable technique for the evaluation of synovial fluid dilution in lavage samples from canine joints. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1903–1906)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate anticollagen type I antibodies in synovial fluid of the affected stifle joint, the contralateral stifle joint, and the left shoulder joint of dogs with unilateral cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) rupture during an extended period of 12 to 18 months.

Animals—13 client-owned dogs with CrCL rupture and 2 sham-operated dogs.

Procedures—All dogs were examined and arthrocentesis of all 3 joints was performed every 6 months after surgery. Synovial fluid samples were tested for anticollagen type I antibodies by use of an ELISA.

Results—Dogs with partial CrCL rupture had higher antibody titers than dogs with complete rupture. Six of 13 dogs ruptured the contralateral CrCL during the study, whereby higher antibody titers were found for the stifle joints than for the shoulder joint. Seronegative dogs or dogs with extremely low antibody titers and 2 dogs with high antibody titers did not sustain a CrCL rupture in the contralateral stifle joint.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In most dogs that had a CrCL rupture of the contralateral stifle joint, a distinct antibody titer gradient toward the stifle joints was detected, suggesting that there was a local inflammatory process in these joints. However, only a small number of sham-operated dogs were used to calculate the cutoff values used to determine the anticollagen type I antibody titers in these patients. Synovial fluid antibodies against collagen type I alone do not initiate CrCL rupture because not all dogs with high antibody titers sustained a CrCL rupture in the contralateral stifle joint.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To examine mRNA expression of cytokines in synovial fluid (SF) cells from dogs with cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) rupture and medial patellar luxation (MPL) and determine mRNA expression for 3 joints (affected stifle, unaffected contralateral stifle, and left shoulder joints) in dogs with unilateral CrCL rupture.

Sample Population—29 stifle joints with CrCL rupture (29 dogs), 8 stifle joints with MPL (7 dogs), and 24 normal stifle joints (16 clinically normal dogs).

Procedures—Immediately before reconstructive surgery, SF was aspirated from the cruciate-deficient stifle joint or stifle joint with MPL. Fourteen of 29 dogs had unilateral CrCL rupture; SF was also aspirated from the unaffected contralateral stifle joint and left shoulder joint. Those 14 dogs were examined 6 and 12 months after reconstructive surgery. Total RNA was extracted from SF cells and reverse transcription–PCR assay was performed to obtain cDNA. Canine-specific cytokine mRNA expression was determined by use of a real-time PCR assay.

Results—Interleukin (IL)-8 and -10 and interferon-G expression differed significantly between dogs with arthropathies and dogs with normal stifle joints. For the 14 dogs with unilateral CrCL rupture, a significant difference was found for IL-8 expression. Before reconstructive surgery, IL-8 expression differed significantly between the affected stifle joint and left shoulder joint or contralateral stifle joint. Six months after surgery, IL-8 expression was significantly increased in the unaffected contralateral stifle joint, compared with the shoulder joint.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—No conclusions can be made regarding the role of the examined cytokines in initiation of CrCL disease.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research