To describe methods to measure the 3-D orientation of the proximal, diaphyseal, and distal segments of the canine radius by use of computer-aided design software (CADS) and to compare the repeatability and reliability of measurements derived by those methods.
31 canine radii with biapical deformities and 24 clinically normal (control) canine radii.
Select CT scans of radii were imported into a CADS program. Cartesian coordinate systems for the humerus and proximal, diaphyseal, and distal radial segments were developed. The orientation of each radial segment in the frontal, sagittal, and transverse planes was measured in triplicate by 3 methods. The repeatability and reliability of those measurements were calculated and compared among the 3 measurement methods.
The mean ± SD within-subject repeatability of radial angular measurements for all 3 methods was 1.40 ± 0.67° in the frontal plane, 3.17 ± 2.21° in the sagittal plane, and 3.01 ± 1.11° in the transverse plane for control radii and 2.56 ± 1.95° in the frontal plane, 3.59 ± 2.39° in the sagittal plane, and 3.47 ± 1.19° in the transverse plane for abnormal radii. Mean ± SD bias between radial measurement methods was 1.88 ± 2.07° in the frontal plane, 6.44 ± 6.80° in the sagittal plane, and 2.27 ± 2.81° in the transverse plane.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that use of CADS to assess the 3-D orientation of the proximal, diaphyseal, and distal segments of normal and abnormal canine radii yielded highly repeatable and reliable measurements.
To assess the motion of the proximal sesamoid bones (PSBs) relative to the third metacarpal bone (MC3) of equine forelimbs during physiologic midstance loads.
8 musculoskeletally normal forelimbs (7 right and 1 left) from 8 adult equine cadavers.
Each forelimb was harvested at the mid-radius level and mounted in a material testing system so the hoof could be moved in a dorsal direction while the radius and MC3 remained vertical. The PSBs were instrumented with 2 linear variable differential transformers to record movement between the 2 bones. The limb was sequentially loaded at a displacement rate of 5 mm/s from 500 N to each of 4 loads (1.8 [standing], 3.6 [walking], 4.5 [trotting], and 10.5 [galloping] kN), held at the designated load for 30 seconds while lateromedial radiographs were obtained, and then unloaded back to 500 N. The position of the PSBs relative to the transverse ridge of the MC3 condyle and angle of the metacarpophalangeal (fetlock) joint were measured on each radiograph.
The distal edge of the PSBs moved distal to the transverse ridge of the MC3 condyle at 10.5 kN (gallop) but not at lower loads. The palmar surfaces of the PSBs rotated away from each other during fetlock joint extension, and the amount of rotation increased with load.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
At loads consistent with a high-speed gallop, PSB translations may create an articular incongruity and abnormal bone stress distribution that contribute to focal subchondral bone lesions and PSB fracture in racehorses.
Objective—To compare macrostructural and microstructural features of proximal sesamoid bones (PSBs) from horses with and without PSB midbody fracture to gain insight into the pathogenesis of PSB fracture.
Sample Population—PSBs from 16 Thoroughbred racehorses (8 with and 8 without a PSB midbody fracture).
Procedures—Parasagittal sections of fractured and contralateral intact PSBs from horses with a PSB fracture and an intact PSB from age- and sex-matched control horses without a PSB fracture were evaluated for visual, radiographic, microradiographic, histologic, and his-tomorphometric differences in bone porosity, vascular channels, heme pigment, trabecular anisotropy, and pathological findings.
Results—Fractured PSBs and their contralateral intact PSBs had more compacted trabecular bone than did control PSBs. Focal repair or remodeling was evident in the palmar aspect of many fractured and contralateral intact PSBs. Fracture coincided with microstructural features and propagated from the flexor to the articular surface.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Fractured PSBs had adapted to high loading but had focal evidence of excessive remodeling and porosity that likely predisposed the horses to complete fracture and catastrophic injury. Detection of focal injury before complete fracture provides an opportunity for prevention of catastrophic injury. Development of diagnostic imaging methods to assess porosity of PSBs may help to identify at-risk horses and allow for modifications of training and racing schedules to reduce the incidence of PSB fracture in Thoroughbred racehorses.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate biomechanical properties of intact feline mandibles, compared with those for mandibles with an experimentally created osteotomy that was stabilized with 1 of 2 internal fixation configurations.
SAMPLE 20 mandibles from 10 adult feline cadavers.
PROCEDURES An incomplete block study design was used to assign the mandibles of each cadaver to 2 of 3 groups (locking plate with locking screws [locking construct], locking plate with nonlocking screws [nonlocking construct], or intact). Within each cadaver, mandibles were randomly assigned to the assigned treatments. For mandibles assigned to the locking and nonlocking constructs, a simple transverse osteotomy was created caudal to the mandibular first molar tooth after plate application. All mandibles were loaded in cantilever bending in a single-load-to-failure test while simultaneously recording load and actuator displacement. Mode of failure (bone or plate failure) was recorded, and radiographic evidence of tooth root and mandibular canal damage was evaluated. Mechanical properties were compared among the 3 groups.
RESULTS Stiffness, bending moments, and most post-yield energies for mandibles with the locking and nonlocking constructs were significantly lower than those for intact mandibles. Peak bending moment and stiffness for mandibles with the locking construct were significantly greater than those for mandibles with the nonlocking construct. Mode of failure and frequency of screw damage to tooth roots and the mandibular canal did not differ between the locking and nonlocking constructs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that both fixation constructs were mechanically inferior to intact mandibles. The locking construct was mechanically stronger than the nonlocking construct.
OBJECTIVE To compare the biomechanical behavior of mandibular critical-sized defects stabilized with 2 plating configurations under in vitro conditions resembling clinical situations.
SAMPLE 24 mandibles harvested from 12 adult canine cadavers.
PROCEDURES 8 mandibles were kept intact as control samples. A critical-sized defect was created in 16 mandibles; these mandibles were stabilized by use of a single locking plate (LP [n = 8]) or an LP combined with an alveolar miniplate (LMP ). Mandibles were loaded in cantilever bending in a single-load-to-failure test with simultaneous recording of load and actuator displacement. Stiffness, yield, and failure properties were compared among groups. Mode of failure was recorded. Radiographic evidence of tooth root and mandibular canal damage was quantified and compared between groups.
RESULTS Stiffness and yield loads of single LP and LMP constructs were < 30% of values for intact mandibles, and failure loads were < 45% of values for intact mandibles. There were no consistent biomechanical differences at failure between single LP and LMP constructs, but the LMP construct had greater stiffness and strength prior to yield. Frequency of screw penetration of teeth and the mandibular canal was significantly greater for LMP than for single LP constructs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Both fixation methods were mechanically inferior to an intact mandible. The LMP construct was mechanically stronger than the LP construct but may not be clinically justifiable. Addition of an alveolar miniplate provided additional strength to the construct but resulted in more frequent penetration of tooth roots and the mandibular canal.
To evaluate and quantify the kinematic behavior of canine mandibles before and after bilateral rostral or unilateral segmental mandibulectomy as well as after mandibular reconstruction with a locking reconstruction plate in ex vivo conditions.
Head specimens from cadavers of 16 dogs (range in body weight, 30 to 35 kg).
Specimens were assigned to undergo unilateral segmental (n = 8) or bilateral rostral (8) mandibulectomy and then mandibular reconstruction by internal fixation with locking plates. Kinematic markers were attached to each specimen in a custom-built load frame. Markers were tracked in 3-D space during standardized loading conditions, and mandibular motions were quantified. Differences in mandibular range of motion among 3 experimental conditions (before mandibulectomy [ie, with mandibles intact], after mandibulectomy, and after reconstruction) were assessed by means of repeated-measures ANOVA.
Both unilateral segmental and bilateral rostral mandibulectomy resulted in significantly greater mandibular motion and instability, compared with results for intact mandibles. No significant differences in motion were detected between mandibles reconstructed after unilateral segmental mandibulectomy and intact mandibles. Similarly, the motion of mandibles reconstructed after rostral mandibulectomy was no different from that of intact mandibles, except in the lateral direction.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Mandibular kinematics in head specimens from canine cadavers were significantly altered after unilateral segmental and bilateral rostral mandibulectomy. These alterations were corrected after mandibular reconstruction with locking reconstruction plates. Findings reinforced the clinical observations of the beneficial effect of reconstruction on mandibular function and the need for reconstructive surgery after mandibulectomy in dogs.
To evaluate the biomechanical properties of the mandibles of cats with experimentally created osteotomies simulating oblique ramus fractures, which were stabilized with malleable L-miniplates with either locking screws [locking construct (LC)] or nonlocking screws [nonlocking construct (NLC)], compared with those for intact mandibles.
20 mandibles from 10 adult cat cadavers.
A block study design was adopted to allocate the mandibles of each cadaver to 2 of the 3 test groups (LC, NLC, or intact mandible). Mandibles within each cadaver were allocated systematically to a test group. For mandibles assigned to an LC and an NLC, a complete oblique osteotomy was performed from the mid rostral aspect of the ramus in a caudoventral direction. All mandibles were loaded in a single-load-to-failure test through cantilever bending. Load and actuator displacement were recorded simultaneously. Mode of failure and radiographic evidence of damage to tooth roots and the mandibular canal were evaluated. Biomechanical properties were compared among the groups.
No iatrogenic tooth root damage was evident, but all mandibles with an LC and an NLC had evidence of screw invasion into the mandibular canal. Plated mandibles had significantly less stiffness and bending moment than intact mandibles. Stiffness was not significantly different between the LC and the NLC; the NLC had a greater bending moment at failure than the LC. The pre-yield stiffness of plated mandibles decreased when the number of screw holes overlapping the mandibular canal increased.
The use of a malleable L-miniplate in a caudal mandibular fracture model is feasible. Both the LC and the NLC were inferior mechanically to intact mandibles. Type of construct used did not affect the construct stiffness significantly in tested mandibles.
Objective—To determine morphological and mechanical properties of trabecular bone of horses with a bone fragility syndrome (BFS; including silicate-associated osteoporosis).
Sample—Cylindrical trabecular bone samples from the distal aspects of cadaveric third metacarpal bones of 39 horses (19 horses with a BFS [BFS bone samples] and 20 horses without a BFS [control bone samples]).
Procedures—Bone samples were imaged via micro-CT for determination of bone volume fraction; apparent and mean mineralized bone densities; and trabecular number, thickness, and separation. Bone samples were compressed to failure for determination of apparent elastic modulus and stresses, strains, and strain energy densities for yield, ultimate, and failure loads. Effects of BFS and age of horses on variables were determined.
Results—BFS bone samples had 25% lower bone volume fraction, 28% lower apparent density, 18% lower trabecular number and thickness, and 16% greater trabecular separation versus control bone samples. The BFS bone samples had 22% lower apparent modulus and 32% to 33% lower stresses, 10% to 18% lower strains, and 41 % to 52% lower strain energy densities at yield, ultimate, and failure loads, compared with control bone samples. Differences between groups of bone samples were not detected for mean mineral density and trabecular anisotropy.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that horses with a BFS had osteopenia and compromised trabecular bone function, consistent with bone deformation and pathological fractures that develop in affected horses. Effects of this BFS may be systemic, and bones other than those that are clinically affected had changes in morphological and mechanical properties.
Objective—To compare hoof acceleration and ground reaction force (GRF) data among dirt, synthetic, and turf surfaces in Thoroughbred racehorses.
Animals—3 healthy Thoroughbred racehorses.
Procedures—Forelimb hoof accelerations and GRFs were measured with an accelerometer and a dynamometric horseshoe during trot and canter on dirt, synthetic, and turf track surfaces at a racecourse. Maxima, minima, temporal components, and a measure of vibration were extracted from the data. Acceleration and GRF variables were compared statistically among surfaces.
Results—The synthetic surface often had the lowest peak accelerations, mean vibration, and peak GRFs. Peak acceleration during hoof landing was significantly smaller for the synthetic surface (mean ± SE, 28.5g ± 2.9g) than for the turf surface (42.9g ± 3.8g). Hoof vibrations during hoof landing for the synthetic surface were < 70% of those for the dirt and turf surfaces. Peak GRF for the synthetic surface (11.5 ± 0.4 N/kg) was 83% and 71% of those for the dirt (13.8 ± 0.3 N/kg) and turf surfaces (16.1 ± 0.7 N/kg), respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The relatively low hoof accelerations, vibrations, and peak GRFs associated with the synthetic surface evaluated in the present study indicated that synthetic surfaces have potential for injury reduction in Thoroughbred racehorses. However, because of the unique material properties and different nature of individual dirt, synthetic, and turf racetrack surfaces, extending the results of this study to encompass all track surfaces should be done with caution.
To compare the torsional mechanical properties of 2 external skeletal fixators (ESFs) placed with 2 intramedullary pin (IP) and transfixation pin (TP) size combinations in a model of raptor tibiotarsal bone fracture.
24 ESF-synthetic tibiotarsal bone model (polyoxymethylene) constructs.
Synthetic bone models were fabricated with an 8-mm (simulated fracture) gap. Four types of ESF-synthetic bone model constructs (6/group) were tested: a FESSA with a 1.6-mm IP and 1.6-mm TPs, a FESSA with a 2.0-mm IP and 1.1-mm TPs, an acrylic connecting bar with a 1.6-mm IP and 1.6-mm TPs, and an acrylic connecting bar with a 2.0-mm IP and 1.1-mm TPs. Models were rotated in torsion (5°/s) to failure or the machine angle limit (80°). Mechanical variables at yield and at failure were determined from load deformation curves. Effects of overall construct type, connecting bar type, and IP and TP size combination on mechanical properties were assessed with mixed-model ANOVAs.
Both FESSA constructs had significantly greater median stiffness and median torque at yield than both acrylic bar constructs; FESSA constructs with a 1.6-mm IP and 1.6-mm TPs had greatest stiffness of all tested constructs and lowest gap strain at yield. No FESSA constructs failed during testing; 7 of 12 acrylic bar constructs failed by fracture of the connecting bar at the interface with a TP.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Although acrylic bar ESFs have been successfully used in avian patients, the FESSA constructs in this study were mechanically superior to acrylic bar constructs, with greatest benefit resulting from use with the larger TP configuration.