Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 3 of 3 items for

  • Author or Editor: Tamberlyn D. Moyers x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search


Objective—To evaluate the influence of acidifying or alkalinizing diets on bone mineral density and urine relative supersaturation (URSS) with calcium oxalate and struvite in healthy cats.

Animals—6 castrated male and 6 spayed female cats.

Procedures—3 groups of 4 cats each were fed diets for 12 months that differed only in acidifying or alkalinizing properties (alkalinizing, neutral, and acidifying). Body composition was estimated by use of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and 48-hour urine samples were collected for URSS determination.

Results—Urine pH differed significantly among diet groups, with the lowest urine pH values in the acidifying diet group and the highest values in the alkalinizing diet group. Differences were not observed in other variables except urinary ammonia excretion, which was significantly higher in the neutral diet group. Calcium oxalate URSS was highest in the acidifying diet group and lowest in the alkalinizing diet group; struvite URSS was not different among groups. Diet was not significantly associated with bone mineral content or density.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Urinary undersaturation with calcium oxalate was achieved by inducing alkaluria. Feeding an alkalinizing diet was not associated with URSS with struvite. Bone mineral density and calcium content were not adversely affected by diet; therefore, release of calcium from bone caused by feeding an acidifying diet may not occur in healthy cats.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of diazepam administered per rectum via compounded (ie, not commercially available) suppositories and determine whether a dose of 2 mg/kg in this formulation would result in plasma concentrations shown to be effective for control of status epilepticus or cluster seizures (ie, 150 to 300 ng/mL) in dogs within a clinically useful interval (10 to 15 minutes).

Animals—6 healthy mixed-breed dogs.

Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 3 dogs each in a crossover-design study. Diazepam (2 mg/kg) was administered IV or via suppository per rectum, and blood samples were collected at predetermined time points. Following a 6- or 7-day washout period, each group received the alternate treatment. Plasma concentrations of diazepam and nordiazepam were analyzed via reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

Results—Plasma concentrations of diazepam and nordiazepam exceeded the targeted range ≤ 3 minutes after IV administration in all dogs. After suppository administration, targeted concentrations of diazepam were not detected in any dogs, and targeted concentrations of nordiazepam were detected after 90 minutes (n = 2 dogs) or 120 minutes (3) or were not achieved (1).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of these results, administration of 2 mg of diazepam/kg via the compounded suppositories used in the present study cannot be recommended for emergency treatment of seizures in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To determine the efficacy and safety of a urinary acidifier (d,l-methionine [Methio-Form]) and an antimicrobial agent (amoxicillin–clavulanic acid [Clavamox]) without changing diet for dissolving infection-induced struvite urocystoliths in dogs.


14 dogs were recruited for this prospective study; 11 completed it and 3 dogs withdrew due to inability of the owners to administer the treatment (n = 2) or refusal of treatment by the dog (1).


All dogs were administered d,l-methionine (approx initial dose of 75 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) and amoxicillin–clavulanic acid (22 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) based on urine culture and sensitivity. Urine pH, urinalysis, urine culture, venous blood gas and serum biochemical analysis, and lateral survey abdominal radiographic images were evaluated initially and every 4 weeks until urolith dissolution (success) or lack of change in size and/or shape of urocystoliths on 2 consecutive reevaluation points (failure) occurred.


Uroliths dissolved in 8 of 11 dogs in a median of 2 months (range, 1 to 4 months) with a final effective dosage of d,l-methionine of approximately 100 mg/kg, PO, every 12 hours. In 3 dogs, uroliths failed to dissolve and were removed surgically; they contained variable amounts of calcium oxalate. No adverse events occurred.


Infection-induced struvite urolithiasis is 1 of the 2 most common minerals occurring in canine uroliths. Results of this study supported the use of d,l-methionine and amoxicillin–clavulanic acid without changing diet for dissolution of infection-induced struvite urocystoliths in dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association