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- Author or Editor: Talon S. McKee x
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To determine the incidence of and potential risk factors for postoperative regurgitation and vomiting (PORV), postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), and aspiration pneumonia in geriatric dogs using premedication with maropitant and famotidine, intraoperative fentanyl, and postoperative fentanyl as part of an anesthetic protocol.
105 client-owned geriatric dogs that underwent general anesthesia for a major surgical procedure between January 2019 and March 2020.
Medical records were reviewed to collect data on signalment, historical gastrointestinal signs, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, indication for surgery, duration of anesthesia and surgery, patient position during surgery, mode of ventilation, and perioperative administration of maropitant, famotidine, anticholinergics, opioids, colloidal support, NSAID, corticosteroids, and appetite stimulants. The incidence of postoperative regurgitation, vomiting, nausea, and aspiration pneumonia was calculated, and variables were each analyzed for their association with these outcomes.
2 of 105 (1.9%) dogs regurgitated, 1 of 105 (1.0%) dogs developed aspiration pneumonia, 4 of 105 (3.8%) dogs exhibited nausea, and no dogs vomited. Identified possible risk factors included older age (≥ 13 years old) for postoperative regurgitation, regurgitation for postoperative aspiration pneumonia, and high ASA score (≥ 4) for both regurgitation and aspiration pneumonia.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
The use of an antiemetic protocol including maropitant, famotidine, and fentanyl in geriatric dogs resulted in very low incidences of PORV, PONV, and aspiration pneumonia. Future prospective studies are warranted to further evaluate and mitigate postoperative risks.
To investigate risk factors, clinical features, and prognostic indicators in guinea pigs with urolithiasis.
158 guinea pigs with urolithiasis.
Medical records of an exotics animal specialty service were searched, identifying guinea pigs with urolithiasis. Signalment, clinical data, and outcomes were recorded. Variables of interest were analyzed for statistical associations with outcome.
Overall, 54.4% (86/158) of animals survived to discharge. Median survival time was 177 days. Females (53.2%; 84/158) were more common than males (46.8%; 74/158). Males were presented younger (mean age, 3.64 years) than females (4.41 years). In 81 of 154 (52.5%) cases, animals were presented with primary urinary concerns, while 73 (47.5%) presented for nonurinary primary concerns. Females more commonly presented with distal urinary tract urolithiasis (63/84; 75%) but fared better overall with a longer median survival time (1,149 days) than males (59 days). Surgical intervention was not a risk factor for nonsurvival; however, increased age (> 4.1 years), male sex, anorexia, weight loss, and lower rectal temperature (< 37.2 °C) on presentation were associated with nonsurvival. Reoccurrence was noted in 13.9% (22/158) of cases, at an average of 284 days.
Urolithiasis should always be considered a differential diagnosis for any unwell guinea pig. In particular, distal urinary tract urolithiasis should be considered in females. A poorer prognosis was associated with older, male guinea pigs, and those displaying anorexia, weight loss, and hypothermia. The need for surgical intervention should not confer a poorer outcome. Further studies are needed to determine specific risk factors and identify possible preventative measures.