Objective—To determine the efficacy and safety of topical administration of selamectin and to compare selamectin treatment with a common ivermectin protocol for the treatment of natural infestation with Trixacarus caviae in pet guinea pigs.
Animals—17 mixed-breed pet guinea pigs with active mite infestation.
Procedures—Guinea pigs were randomly allocated to receive a single dose of selamectin topically (15 mg/kg [6.8 mg/lb]) or ivermectin (400 μg/kg [181.8 μg/lb], SC) every 10 days for 4 injections. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings from all animals was performed at 10-day intervals for 60 days, and the presence of mites or mite eggs was recorded. The efficacies of the 2 treatment protocols were compared at every time point.
Results—Pruritus resolved by day 10 in all animals. Animals were microscopically mite-free on days 30 and 40 in the selamectin and ivermectin treatment groups, respectively, but groups did not differ significantly in regard to the number of mite-positive animals at any timepoint. Recurrence of infection was not noted in either treatment group. No adverse reactions were observed in any of the treated animals.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that a single topical application of selamectin at a dose of 15 mg/kg or repeated SC injection of ivermectin at a dose of 400 μg/kg can eliminate T caviae mites from guinea pigs within 30 and 40 days, respectively. Although effectiveness did not significantly differ between the 2 treatments, the convenience associated with the single topical dose of selamectin made it a preferable treatment modality for both patients and owners.
Objective—To determine clinical features, outcome, risk factors for death, and efficacy of IV administration of lidocaine as a prophylactic treatment for ischemic reperfusion injury in gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) in dogs.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—112 dogs with GDV.
Procedures—Data pertaining to breed; time lag to admission; clinical, clinicopathologic, and surgical findings; lidocaine treatment; and postoperative complications were assessed for association with outcome.
Results—German Shepherd Dogs (28.6%) and Great Danes (17%) were significantly over-represented. Risk factors for death included time lag (≥ 5 hours vs < 5 hours) from onset of clinical signs to admission (46.0% vs 11.3%), rectal temperature (≤ 38°C vs > 38°C [< 100.4°F vs > 100.4°F]) at admission (40.0% vs 14.9%), presence or absence of ARF (67.0% vs 23.3%), presence or absence of suspected gastric wall necrosis (59.3% vs 16.0%), and untreated gastric wall necrosis, compared with treated gastric wall necrosis (100% vs 47.6%). Overall mortality rate was 26.8%; no significant differences were detected in mortality rate or postoperative complications between dogs that received lidocaine IV prior to surgical intervention (52.0%) and dogs that did not (48.0%). Mean ± SD hospitalization time was longer in the lidocaine treatment group (3.5 ± 1.9 days vs 2.5 ± 1.4 days).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Presence of the identified risk factors should warrant aggressive treatment. Lidocaine treatment was not associated with mortality rate or postoperative complications, but was associated with prolonged hospitalization time.
OBJECTIVE To characterize clinical and laboratory findings in cats with naturally occurring sepsis, emphasizing hemostasis-related findings, and evaluate these variables for associations with patient outcomes.
ANIMALS 31 cats with sepsis and 33 healthy control cats.
PROCEDURES Data collected included history; clinical signs; results of hematologic, serum biochemical, and hemostatic tests; diagnosis; and outcome (survival vs death during hospitalization or ≤ 30 days after hospital discharge). Differences between cats with and without sepsis and associations between variables of interest and death were analyzed statistically.
RESULTS The sepsis group included cats with pyothorax (n = 10), septic peritonitis (7), panleukopenia virus infection (5), bite wounds (5), abscesses and diffuse cellulitis (3), and pyometra (1). Common clinical abnormalities included dehydration (21 cats), lethargy (21), anorexia (18), pale mucous membranes (15), and dullness (15). Numerous clinicopathologic abnormalities were identified in cats with sepsis; novel findings included metarubricytosis, hypertriglyceridemia, and high circulating muscle enzyme activities. Median activated partial thromboplastin time and plasma D-dimer concentrations were significantly higher, and total protein C and antithrombin activities were significantly lower, in the sepsis group than in healthy control cats. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy was uncommon (4/22 [18%] cats with sepsis). None of the clinicopathologic abnormalities were significantly associated with death on multivariate analysis.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Cats with sepsis had multiple hematologic, biochemical, and hemostatic abnormalities on hospital admission, including several findings suggestive of hemostatic derangement. Additional research including larger numbers of cats is needed to further investigate these findings and explore associations with outcome.
Objective—To determine baseline tear pH in dogs, horses, and cattle by use of a microelectrode.
Animals—28 dogs, 24 horses, and 29 cattle.
Procedures—Under manual restraint, tears were collected from each subject's left eye with cotton spears. A Schirmer tear test was performed in the right eye. Tears were extracted from the spears by centrifugation. Tear volume was measured, pH was determined with a microelectrode, and total solids (TS) concentration was measured by refractometry.
Results—Mean ± SD pH of tears in cattle, dogs, and horses was 8.32 ± 0.14, 8.05 ± 0.26, and 7.84 ± 0.30, respectively. Tear pH was significantly higher in cattle versus dogs and horses and in dogs versus horses. Mean ± SD TS concentration in horses, cattle, and dogs was 2.04 ± 1.29 g/dL, 1.07 ± 0.60 g/dL, and 0.33 ± 0.18 g/dL, respectively. Total solids concentration was significantly higher in horses versus cattle and dogs and in cattle versus dogs. Schirmer tear test results for all animals were within the species reference range.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tear pH in all 3 species differed from that of published blood pH values and the pH of common topically administered ophthalmic medications. These fndings may have implications for variations in ocular flora and defense mechanisms, susceptibility to ocular disease, and success or comfort of topical treatment.
OBJECTIVE To characterize CT findings and outcomes in dogs with head trauma and design a prognostic scale.
ANIMALS 27 dogs admitted to the Koret School Veterinary Teaching Hospital within 72 hours after traumatic head injury that underwent CT imaging of the head.
PROCEDURES Data were extracted from medical records regarding dog signalment, history, physical and neurologic examination findings, and modified Glasgow coma scale scores. All CT images were retrospectively evaluated by a radiologist unaware of dog status. Short-term (10 days after trauma) and long-term (≥ 6 months after trauma) outcomes were determined, and CT findings and other variables were analyzed for associations with outcome. A prognostic CT-based scale was developed on the basis of the results.
RESULTS Cranial vault fractures, parenchymal abnormalities, or both were identified via CT in 24 of 27 (89%) dogs. Three (11%) dogs had only facial bone fractures. Intracranial hemorrhage was identified in 16 (59%) dogs, cranial vault fractures in 15 (56%), midline shift in 14 (52%), lateral ventricle asymmetry in 12 (44%), and hydrocephalus in 7 (26%). Hemorrhage and ventricular asymmetry were significantly and negatively associated with short- and long-term survival, respectively. The developed 7-point prognostic scale included points for hemorrhage, midline shift or lateral ventricle asymmetry, cranial vault fracture, and depressed fracture (1 point each) and infratentorial lesion (3 points).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The findings reported here may assist in determining prognoses for other dogs with head trauma. The developed scale may be useful for outcome assessment of dogs with head trauma; however, it must be validated before clinical application.