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To evaluate analgesic efficacy of 3 different preoperative protocols in cows undergoing right flank laparotomy for displaced abomasum.


40 cows diagnosed with displaced abomasum.


The cows were assigned by block randomization to 1 of 3 preoperative protocols: inverted L-block using 50 mL of 2% lidocaine (ILB; n = 13), ILB plus preoperative flunixin meglumine (2 mg/kg, IV; ILB-F; 13), and dorsolumbar epidural anesthesia using 2% xylazine (0.8 mL) and 2% lidocaine (4 mL; EPI; 14). Venous blood samples were collected for CBC, serum biochemistry, and cortisol preoperatively and at 0 (immediately after), 3, 17, and 48 hours postoperatively.


The mean (95% CI) of the serum cortisol in ILB, ILB-F, and EPI were 108.7 (66.7 to 150.7), 150.7 (116.4 to 185.0), and 139.8 (93.4 to 186.3), respectively. The serum cortisol concentrations decreased over time in all groups (ILB, P = .001; ILB-F and EPI, P < .001). In the ILB group, the cortisol concentration at 17 and 48 hours postoperatively decreased (P = .026 and P = .009, respectively), compared with that preoperatively. In the ILB-F and EPI groups, the preoperative cortisol concentration was the highest and then decreased at 0, 3, 17, and 48 hours postoperatively (ILB-F, 0 hours [P = .001] and 3, 17, and 48 hours [P < .001]; EPI, all [P < .001]).


ILB-F and EPI improved intraoperative and immediate postoperative indicators of pain-related stress when compared to standard ILB. EPI requires less anesthetic, which may be beneficial when in short supply.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


In an effort to better understand the role of vasodilators in the management of pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic heartworm disease (hwd), pulmonary hemodynamic measurements were obtained from 7 experimentally infected, anesthetized dogs before and after hydralazine administration (mean dose, 1.96 mg/kg of body weight). Five dogs were maintained on room air, while 2 were maintained on 100% oxygen during the hydralazine study. The hemodynamic effect of hydralazine in dogs with hwd was evaluated, using heart rate, cardiac index, mean pulmonary artery pressure, mean arterial pressure, total pulmonary resistance, total systemic resistance, total systemic resistance/total pulmonary resistance, left ventricular dP/dtmax, left ventricular end diastolic pressure, and left and right ventricular double products ([mean arterial pressure × heart rate] and [mean pulmonary artery pressure × heart rate], respectively). Responders were defined as those in which total pulmonary resistance decreased ≥ 20% without an increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure and in which heart rate increase was ≤ 10%. Comparison was also made between maximal hemodynamic effect of hydralazine with that after 100% oxygen administration for 15 minutes to previously normoxemic dogs (n = 5). Significance was determined if P < 0.05, using the paired t-test.

Hydralazine induced significant reductions in mean pulmonary and systemic arterial pressures and total pulmonary resistance, with no significant change in heart rate, cardiac index, total systemic resistance, left ventricular dP/dtmax, left ventricular end diastolic pressure, or right and left ventricular double products. Four (57%) of the 7 dogs studied were considered responders. Pretreatment cardiac index, mean pulmonary artery pressure, and total pulmonary resistance did not allow differentiation of responders from nonresponders. However, pretreatment right ventricular end diastolic pressure was significandy less in responders than in nonresponders. Two dogs sustained hypotension after hydralazine administration, but no dogs had significant tachycardia. In dogs with experimentally induced hwd, treatment with hydralazine had significantly greater effect on cardiac index and mean pulmonary and systemic arterial pressures and resistance than did administration of 100% oxygen. These data indicate that further study of vasodilators for treatment of hwd-induced pulmonary hypertension may be warranted.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research