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  • Author or Editor: Takashi Murakami x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate analgesic efficacy of 3 different preoperative protocols in cows undergoing right flank laparotomy for displaced abomasum.

ANIMALS

40 cows diagnosed with displaced abomasum.

PROCEDURES

The cows were assigned by block randomization to 1 of 3 preoperative protocols: inverted L-block using 50 mL of 2% lidocaine (ILB; n = 13), ILB plus preoperative flunixin meglumine (2 mg/kg, IV; ILB-F; 13), and dorsolumbar epidural anesthesia using 2% xylazine (0.8 mL) and 2% lidocaine (4 mL; EPI; 14). Venous blood samples were collected for CBC, serum biochemistry, and cortisol preoperatively and at 0 (immediately after), 3, 17, and 48 hours postoperatively.

RESULTS

The mean (95% CI) of the serum cortisol in ILB, ILB-F, and EPI were 108.7 (66.7 to 150.7), 150.7 (116.4 to 185.0), and 139.8 (93.4 to 186.3), respectively. The serum cortisol concentrations decreased over time in all groups (ILB, P = .001; ILB-F and EPI, P < .001). In the ILB group, the cortisol concentration at 17 and 48 hours postoperatively decreased (P = .026 and P = .009, respectively), compared with that preoperatively. In the ILB-F and EPI groups, the preoperative cortisol concentration was the highest and then decreased at 0, 3, 17, and 48 hours postoperatively (ILB-F, 0 hours [P = .001] and 3, 17, and 48 hours [P < .001]; EPI, all [P < .001]).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

ILB-F and EPI improved intraoperative and immediate postoperative indicators of pain-related stress when compared to standard ILB. EPI requires less anesthetic, which may be beneficial when in short supply.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine complimentary DNA (cDNA) sequence and tissue distribution of canine brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and to investigate whether synthesis of canine BNP increases in association with cardiovascular dysfunction.

Animals

5 healthy adult mixed-breed dogs and 3 healthy adult Beagles.

Procedure

Total RNA was extracted from normal canine hearts and was used in a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) procedure to isolate canine BNP cDNA. Sequence of the isolated cDNA was analyzed. Gene expression of canine BNP in various tissues from 2 mixed-breed dogs was investigated, using RT-PCR and northern blot analyses. Moreover, messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of canine BNP, using northern blot analysis, was compared between grossly normal hearts from 3 Beagles and hearts from 3 mixed-breed dogs with acute myocardial infarction created by surgical ligation.

Results

The cDNA sequence and deduced amino acid residues of canine BNP precursor were 420 base pairs and 140 residues, respectively. Messenger RNA expression of canine BNP was detectable in the atria but not in the ventricles and the other tissues. Messenger RNA expression of canine BNP was, however, detectable in the infarcted portion of the ventricles. The amount of canine BNP mRNA in the infarcted ventricles was significantly increased, compared with that of noninfarcted ventricles.

Conclusion

The cDNA sequence of canine BNP was determined. Expression of canine BNP mRNA was detected not only in the atria but also in infarcted ventricles. Synthesis of canine BNP increases in association with ischemic myocardial injury. Canine BNP may be used as an indicator of severity of ventricular myocardial injury. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:860–864)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the characteristics and outcomes of dogs with stage I, II, III, or IV oral malignant melanoma treated by various types of radiotherapy.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—111 dogs.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs with oral malignant melanoma treated by radiotherapy (with or without adjunctive treatments) at a veterinary medical center between July 2006 and December 2012 were reviewed. Information regarding signalment, tumor location, disease stage, treatment protocols, adverse effects, and survival time were obtained from medical records and by telephone follow-up. Associations between variables of interest and outcome were analyzed.

Results—Dogs received orthovoltage x-ray (n = 68), megavoltage x-ray (39), or electron beam (4) radiotherapy. Adjunctive treatments included debulking surgery (n = 18), chemotherapy (39), or both (27). Median survival times for dogs with stage I, II, III, and IV melanoma were 758 days (n = 19), 278 days (24), 163 days (37), and 80 days (31), respectively, and differed significantly between dogs with stage I disease and those with all other disease stages. Among dogs with stage III melanoma, risk of death was significantly higher in those that received orthovoltage x-ray treatment than in those that received megavoltage x-ray treatment. Severe (primary or secondary) adverse effects were identified in 9 dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Median survival time was significantly longer for dogs with stage I oral malignant melanoma than for dogs with more advanced disease at the time of staging. The staging system used may be a useful tool for prognosis prediction in dogs undergoing similar treatment protocols for oral malignant melanomas.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association