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Abstract

Objective

To investigate changes in the fecal flora of healthy cats after dietary supplementation with fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS).

Animals

12 healthy, barrier-maintained, specific-pathogen-free-derived adult cats.

Procedure

Fresh fecal samples for quantitative and qualitative bacteriologic examination were collected from each cat after ingestion of a replete dry (basal) diet for a minimum of 8 weeks. The diet was then supplemented with 0.75% FOS, and another fecal sample was collected after 12 weeks.

Results

Mean ± SD fecal aerobic, anaerobic, and total bacterial counts (log10 colony-forming units per gram of feces [CFU/g]) did not differ significantly between diets (8.3 ± 0.8, 9.2 ± 0.6, 9.4 ± 0.4, respectively, for the basal diet; and 8.4 ± 0.8, 9.7 ± 0.7, and 9.8 ± 0.7, respectively, for the FOS diet), although there was a trend for higher numbers of anaerobes and total bacteria associated with the FOS diet. Members of the genus Bacteroides, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, lactobacilli, and Plesiomonas shigeloides were the most prevalent bacteria isolated. Compared with samples from cats fed basal diet, there was a trend for increased mean counts of lactobacilli (P = 0.02) and Bacteroides spp (P = 0.05) after FOS supplementation, and a trend for decreased mean numbers of Escherichia coli (P = 0.03) and Clostridium perfringens (P = 0.08) to be associated with the FOS diet. Supplementation of FOS resulted in a median 164-fold increase in numbers of lactobacilli, 13.2-fold increase in Bacteroides spp, 98% reduction in numbers of C perfringens, and 75% reduction in numbers of E coli.

Conclusions

Supplementation of the diet with FOS resulted in alteration of the fecal flora of cats. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:436–440)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Objective

To investigate the bacterial flora of the proximal part of the small intestine of healthy cats and determine the effect of sample collection method on results of bacteriologic culture.

Animals

25 healthy barrier-maintained specific-pathogen-free-derived cats.

Procedure

Aspirated, undiluted samples of proximal small intestinal juice were obtained via oral endoscopy (UEA), and a second sample was collected after instillation of 1 ml of sterile saline solution (diluted, DEA). Undiluted juice also was obtained by direct needle aspiration (NA) from the intestinal lumen. Samples for quantitative and semiqualitative bacteriologic examination were grown aerobically and anaerobically.

Results

Mean (range) log10 colony-forming units of total bacteria/ml were 6.2 (2.0 to 8.3) for NA, 6.0 (2.0 to 7.9) for UEA, and 4.9 (2.0 to 7.5) for DEA samples. One cat had no growth (≤ 2.0 colony-forming units/ml) for samples obtained using all 3 methods, and another cat had no growth for the DEA sample only. Mean total aerobic, anaerobic, and bacterial counts were not significantly different between NA and UEA methods, but these techniques yielded significantly higher mean counts than did DEA samples (P ≤ 0.002, ANOVA). As a percentage of the total bacteria isolated, anaerobes constituted a median 35, 32, and 50% of the NA, UEA, and DEA samples, respectively. Good correlation was found between the NA and UEA samples for total bacteria, aerobes, and anaerobes (r ≥ 0.830).

Conclusions

Compared with human beings, healthy cats carry high numbers of bacteria in the proximal part of the small intestine. By comparison with NA samples, UEA samples accurately reflected bacterial populations in the small intestine, whereas DEA samples significantly underestimated these populations. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:48–51)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Detection of autoantibody, complement, or both bound to rbc is an essential requirement for unequivocal diagnosis of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia in dogs. An enzyme-linked antiglobulin test was adapted for laboratory diagnosis of this disease. The refinement and routine use of this assay have allowed further observation of the pathogenesis of the disease process. In particular, degree of hemolysis can be related to the degree of rbc sensitization associated with primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, and this correlation is highest for IgG autoantibody. Results indicate that autoantibody isotype might have an important role in the hemolytic process.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate inter- and intraindividual variation in results of the intravenous glucose tolerance test in cats.

Animals

19 healthy specific-pathogen-free-derived cats were allotted to group A (n = 13), which was accustomed, and group B (n = 6), which was unaccustomed to having blood drawn.

Procedure

Blood samples were collected for glucose and insulin assays before and 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after IV administration of 500 mg of dextrose/kg of body weight. Glucose half-life (t1/2) and disappearance coefficient (K), and the acute-phase insulin response (Ins0-10) were calculated. Inter- and intraindividual variability was as-sessed by calculating the coefficient of variation for test variables.

Results

Comparing the 2 tests, there were no significant differences in glucose and insulin concentrations prior to dextrose administration or in t1/2, K, or Ins0-10. However, compared with group-A cats, cats in group B had significantly (P < 0.05) longer t1/2 and lower K and Ins0-10 values, which was attributed to increased stress in these cats. Overall, the interindividual variability was 62.8% for K, 54.6% for t1/2, and 76.0% for Ins0-10. Mean intraindividual variability was 32.0 (range, 0.1 to 72.0)% for K and t1/2, and 45.8 (range, 4.0 to 179.5)% for Ins0-10. There was only a moderate correlation in results between the 2 tests (rs = 0.59 for t1/2 and K, rs = 0.58 for Ins0-10).

Conclusion

The variability in results of intravenous glucose tolerance tests in cats suggests caution is necessary in interpreting results of a single test in individuals. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1294-1298)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To investigate changes in the duodenal flora of healthy cats over time, and evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS).

Animals

12 healthy, barrier-maintained, specific pathogen-free cats.

Procedure

Duodenal juice for bacteriologic examination was collected via oral endoscopy 5 times from each cat over a 32-week period. Cats were allotted randomly to 2 groups, and a crossover design study, during which they were fed either a replete dry (basal) diet or, for 12 consecutive weeks, basal diet supplemented with 0.75% FOS, was done. Samples (3 from cats fed the basal and 2 from cats fed the FOS diet) were collected for a minimum of 6 weeks after commencement of feeding, and a minimum of 6 weeks apart.

Results

Mean aerobic, anaerobic, and total bacterial counts did not differ significantly among sample collection times. After pooling of the results, mean (± SD) log10 colony-forming units (CFU) of aerobic, anaerobic, and total bacteria/ml were 5.5 ± 1.1, 4.8 ± 1.0 and 5.6 ± 1.1, respectively. However, individual cats had considerable variation in counts: mean (range) intraindividual coefficients of variation were: 19.0 (6.1 to 34.2), 19.9 (4.8 to 35.5), and 18.1 (5.5 to 32.6)%, respectively. In 1 cat, total bacterial count varied between < 3.0 and 6.3 CFU/ml. Bacterial flora varied qualitatively: only Enterococcus faecalis, Clostridium perfringens, Bacteroides, Pasteurella, and Streptococcus spp, and unidentified gram-negative (aerobic) rods were present in > 50% of the samples.

Conclusions

Wide quantitative and qualitative variation in the duodenal flora of healthy cats was observed over time, which was not affected by dietary supplementation with FOS. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:431–435)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the effect of age on orocecal transit time (OCTT) in cats, using the breath hydrogen test, and to assess potential differences in nutrient absorption.

Animals

27 healthy cats.

Procedure

Cats were allocated to the following 3 groups on the basis of age: group A (9 kittens, 5 to 7 months old), group B (9 young adults, 3 to 5 years old), and group C (9 older cats, 12 to 15 years old). Cats were fed a standard canned diet for 2 weeks prior to measurement of OCTT. Exhaled hydrogen concentration (parts per minute [ppm●min]) was monitored for 8 hours after feeding 60 g of the canned diet.

Results

Mean OCTT in group-A cats was 203 minutes (range, 90 to 345 minutes), which was significantly different from that in group-B (317 minutes; range, 180 to 435 minutes) and group-C (309 minutes; range, 225 to 375 minutes) cats. Median area under the breath hydrogen excretion time curve (ppm●min) for the 8-hour monitoring period, first 45 minutes, and 105 minutes after OCTT for the 3 groups was not significantly different among groups.

Conclusions

Kittens had significantly faster OCTT than did adult cats. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1299–1302)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To identify consistent relevant mechanisms of small intestinal dysfunction in cats with experimentally induced feline immunodeficiency virus infection (FIV) that developed chronic diarrhea during the time they were being used in studies of pathogenicity and transmission of FIV.

Animals

10 cats.

Procedure

The following investigative tests and techniques were performed on each of the cats: routine hematologic and serum biochemical analyses; urinalysis; fecal parasitologic and microbiologic examinations; breath hydrogen lactulose (BH2LT) and xylose (BH2XT) tests; intestinal permeability test; endoscopic examination of the intestinal mucosa; bacteriologic culture of endoscopically collected small intestinal juice; and histologic examination of endoscopically obtained intestinal biopsy specimens.

Results

Neutrophilia was evident in 3 cats, and lymphopenia was detected in 2 cats. Serum biochemical abnormalities were not observed. Urinalysis results were unremarkable. Fecal bacteriologic and parasitologic results were normal, except for isolation of Campylobacter sp from 1 cat. Abnormal BH2XT values suggestive of d-xylose malabsorption were identified in 2 cats, and BH2LT values indicated evidence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in 1 cat. Finally, permeability test results, quantitation of bacterial flora from the proximal part of the small intestine and histologic examination of biopsy specimens did not reveal any abnormalities.

Conclusions

Enteric pathogens did not account for the development of diarrhea in cats with experimentally induced FIV infection, and consistent relevant mechanisms of small intestinal dysfunction were not identified. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:569–574)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Intestinal permeability was assessed in 12 healthy cats by use of a differential sugar absorption test. A 50-ml isotonic aqueous solution containing a combination of 1.8 g of the disaccharide lactulose and 1.7 g of the monosaccharide mannitol was administered to cats via nasogastric tube. Urine was collected after 6 hours, and all urine samples were analyzed the same day, using a gas-liquid chromatographic technique (glc) and an enzymatic assay (enz). Median urinary recovery of lactulose was 0.27 and 0.54% determined by glc and enz, respectively. Differences between these groups were statistically significant (P = 0.023), and correlation between assays was high (r = 0.94, P < 0.01). Median urinary recovery of mannitol was 1.93 and 2.09% for glc and enz, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between these groups and the correlation between assays was high (r = 0.85, P < 0.01). The median lactulose-to-mannitol ratio was 0.29, using glc, and was 0.52, using enz. Correlation of these ratios was again high (r = 0.93, P < 0.01).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Techniques for the measurement of breath hydrogen excretion have been evaluated in dogs and the breath hydrogen test has been shown to be useful for clinical diagnosis and as a research tool. A simple method was developed for collection of expired air and measurement of breath hydrogen concentrations in cats, which enabled demonstration of carbohydrate malassimilation. Breath hydrogen concentrations were measured in healthy cats after food was withheld and after xylose and lactulose administration. Breath samples were collected by use of an open flow system with the cat confined in an acrylic plastic chamber. Breath hydrogen excretion did not exceed 0.53 ml of hydrogen/h in cats not fed. Breath hydrogen concentrations after the ingestion of xylose, a pentose sugar given orally at 0.75 g/kg of body weight, were not significantly higher from those of cats not fed. After ingestion of 3.35 g of lactulose, a nonabsorbable disaccharide, breath hydrogen excretion increased and breath hydrogen concentrations were significantly higher by 45 minutes (P < 0.05) and 60 minutes (P < 0.01) from breath hydrogen concentrations measured in cats not fed and after xylose administration. Administration of lactulose at an increased dosage resulted in further significant (P < 0.01) increases in breath hydrogen excretion. In this study, mouth-to-cecum transit times were variable. A mean ± sem- mouth-to-cecum transit time of 86 ± 6 minutes was calculated from measurement of breath hydrogen excretion after oral administration of 3.35 g of lactulose.

Measurements of breath hydrogen concentrations after breath collection by open-flow and closed-flow sampling systems were highly correlated and both variables followed log-normal distributions. The dilution of expired air by the open flow sampling system was not excessive and the results of this correlation study suggested that differences in the assimilation of xylose in healthy cats and dogs may well exist.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research