Objective—To determine the feasibility of quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) for detection of changes in renal blood flow in dogs before and after hydrocortisone administration.
Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups: oral administration of hydrocortisone (9.6 mg/kg; n = 6) or a placebo (5; control group) twice a day for 4 months, after which the dose was tapered until treatment cessation at 6 months. Before treatment began and at 1, 4, and 6 months after, CEUS of the left kidney was performed by IV injection of ultrasonography microbubbles. Images were digitized, and time-intensity curves were generated from regions of interest in the renal cortex and medulla. Changes in blood flow were determined as measured via contrast agent (baseline [background] intensity, peak ntensity, area under the curve, arrival time of contrast agent, time-to-peak intensity, and speed of contrast agent transport).
Results—Significant increases in peak intensity, compared with that in control dogs, were observed in the renal cortex and medulla of hydrocortisone-treated dogs 1 and 4 months after treatment began. Baseline intensity changed similarly. A significant increase from control values was also apparent in area under the curve for the renal cortex 4 months after hydrocortisone treatment began and in the renal medulla 1 and 4 months after treatment began. A significant time effect with typical time course was observed, corresponding with the period during which hydrocortisone was administered. No difference was evident in the other variables between treated and control dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Quantitative CEUS allowed detection of differences in certain markers of renal blood flow between dogs treated orally with and without hydrocortisone. Additional studies are needed to investigate the usefulness of quantitative CEUS in the diagnosis of diffuse renal lesions.
Objective—To assess vascular changes induced by hyperadrenocorticism of hyperplastic adrenal glands in dogs via contrast-enhanced ultrasonography.
Animals—12 dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) and 7 healthy control dogs ≥ 7 years old.
Procedures—Dogs were assigned to the PDH and control groups and to small-breed (n = 6), medium-breed (4), and large-breed (9) subgroups. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of both adrenal glands in each dog was performed with IV injections of contrast agent. Time-intensity curves for the adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla, and ipsilateral renal artery of both adrenal glands were generated. Perfusion variables (time to peak [TTP], upslope of wash-in phase, and downslope of washout phase) were calculated.
Results—Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography revealed no qualitative difference between PDH and control groups. Quantitatively, TTPs were longer in the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla of the PDH group, compared with values for the control group, particularly in the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla of the small-breed subgroup. Washout downslopes were lower for the renal artery, adrenal cortex, and adrenal medulla of the small-breed subgroup between the PDH and control groups. No other perfusion variables differed between groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the adrenal glands in dogs with PDH revealed a delayed TTP in the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla, compared with values for control dogs. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography was able to detect vascular changes induced by hyperadrenocorticism. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether reference ranges for clinically normal dogs and dogs with PDH can be determined and applied in clinical settings.
Agreement of systolic blood pressure measurements (SBP) between noninvasive blood pressure devices in conscious dogs is poorly studied. Situational hypertension is expected in clinics, but studies are lacking. This study aimed to compare SBP measurements obtained with Doppler ultrasonic flow detector (Doppler) versus high-definition oscillometry (HDO) in clinics and at home and to estimate the prevalence of situational hypertension in conscious, apparently healthy elderly dogs.
122 apparently healthy elderly or geriatric dogs were prospectively recruited.
Systolic blood pressure was obtained consecutively with Doppler and HDO techniques in a randomized order per dog, following a standardized protocol. An at-home measurement was advised for in-clinic hypertensive dogs (SBP ≥ 160 mmHg), also using both devices.
Dual measurements were available in 102 dogs. Median SBP was 147.3 mmHg (range, 105 to 239 mmHg) for Doppler and 152.3 mmHg (range, 113 to 221 mmHg) for HDO. Forty-six percent (56/122) were hypertensive, of which 9% (11/122) were hypertensive with both methods. No significant difference was found between the 2 devices in the global study population or within the group of hypertensive dogs. Repeated at-home measurements were performed in 20/56 (35.7%) hypertensive dogs, resulting in a 10 and 26 mmHg lower median SBP value for Doppler and HDO, respectively (P > .05). In-clinic situational hypertension was presumed in 8/20 (40%) dogs.
The choice of the noninvasive blood pressure device did not significantly impact SBP results, but large interindividual differences in SBP between techniques occurred. Situational hypertension was frequently observed in clinic.
Objective—To evaluate the impact of modulation of the membrane-bound efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp) on plasma concentrations of orally administered prednisolone in dogs.
Animals—7 healthy adult Beagles.
Procedures—Each dog received 3 treatments (control [no treatment], rifampicin [100 mg/d, PO, for 21 days, as an inducer of P-gp], and ketoconazole [100 mg/d, PO, for 21 days, as an inhibitor of P-gp]). A single dose of prednisolone (1 mg/kg, PO) was administered on day 8 of each treatment period. There was a 7-day washout period between subsequent treatments. Plasma concentrations of prednisolone were determined by use of a validated liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method. Duodenum and colon biopsy specimens were obtained endoscopically from anesthetized dogs and assessed for P-gp protein labeling via immunohistochemical analysis and mRNA quantification via real-time PCR assay. Total fecal collection was performed for evaluation of effects of P-gp modulation on digestion of nutrients.
Results—Rifampicin treatment upregulated duodenal P-gp in dogs and significantly reduced the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of prednisolone. Ketoconazole typically downregulated expression of duodenal P-gp, with a subsequent increase in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of prednisolone. There was a noticeable interindividual difference in response. Digestion of nutrients was not affected.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Modulation of P-gp expression influenced plasma concentrations of prednisolone after oral administration in dogs. Thus, treatment response to prednisolone may be influenced by coadministration of P-gp–modulating medications or feed ingredients.