Objective—To determine in vitro effects of PBSS, milk, and bacteria-contaminated milk (BCM; contaminated by Streptococcus agalactiae) on properties of 3 synthetic absorbable suture materials.
Sample Population—3 types of synthetic absorbable suture materials (poliglecaprone 25, polyglycolic acid, and polydioxanone).
Procedures—Suture materials were tested to determine breaking strength and elasticity before (day 0) and after incubation in 3 media (PBSS, milk, and BCM) for 7, 14, and 21 days. A loop of suture material was elongated at a rate of 60 mm/min until it reached the breaking point. Tensile properties were statistically analyzed among media and incubation times.
Results—Incubation in milk and BCM significantly decreased breaking strength and elasticity of poliglecaprone 25, compared with results for incubation in PBSS. Incubation in BCM significantly decreased tensile properties of polyglycolic acid suture, compared with results for incubation in PBSS and milk. After incubation for 21 days, tensile properties of polydioxanone did not differ significantly among the media but were significantly decreased from values on day 0.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of this study, poliglecaprone 25 is an inappropriate suture material for use in teat surgery. Polyglycolic acid suture should be avoided in teats of cattle with mastitis. Of the suture materials tested, polydioxanone was best suited for use in teat surgery, as determined on the basis of material testing after incubation in milk, even when the milk was contaminated with bacteria.
Case Description—5 calves were evaluated for abnormal respiratory noise associated with variable degrees of respiratory distress.
Clinical Findings—Tachypnea and inspiratory dyspnea were detected at initial evaluation in all calves. Endoscopic evaluation of the upper respiratory tract revealed enlarged and immobile arytenoids. Radiographic (n = 3) and computed tomographic (1) evaluation of the laryngeal area revealed images that were indicative of a large soft tissue mass at the level of the arytenoids obstructing the rima glottis. A presumptive diagnosis of arytenoid chondritis was made.
Treatment and Outcome—A tracheostomy tube was placed in all calves. Medical treatment (with antimicrobials and anti-inflammatory drugs) was attempted in 4 calves after initial evaluation. Unilateral arytenoidectomy via a laryngotomy was performed under general anesthesia in all calves. Dysphagia and coughing were the most frequent postoperative complications. Three calves survived at least 6 months after the procedure. One calf died of a perforated abomasal ulcer 3 months after the surgery. Another calf died suddenly 1 month after the surgery of an undetermined cause.
Clinical Relevance—Unilateral arytenoidectomy was a viable surgical treatment for arytenoid chondritis in calves. Further research in a larger number of affected cattle is needed to determine the advantages or disadvantages of this procedure over other surgical techniques.
Procedures—For each cow, thoracoscopy was performed in both the left and right hemithoraxes with a 24-hour interval between procedures. Cows were sedated and restrained in a standing position for each thoracoscopic examination. Examination of each hemithorax lasted for 30 minutes. Arterial blood gas variables, heart rate, and respiratory rate were assessed at predetermined times before, during, and after the procedures to monitor cardiovascular and pulmonary function. Thoracic ultrasonography was performed immediately and at 24 hours and 1 week after each thorascopic examination to evaluate the extent of residual pneumothorax.
Results—Insertion of the laparoscope into the pleural cavity at the ninth intercostal space 15 cm ventral to the transverse processes of the thoracic vertebrae provided optimal visibility of structures in both the left and right hemithoraxes. Most structures of the pleural cavity were equally visible from both sides except the esophagus and the dorsal branch of the vagus nerve, which were best observed in the left hemithorax, and the pericardium, which was best observed in the right hemithorax. Mild increases in heart and respiratory rates and moderate decreases in arterial oxygen saturation and Pao2 were detected during the procedures.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Standing thoracoscopy was well tolerated in healthy adult dairy cattle and needs to be evaluated in cattle with pulmonary disease.
Objective—To describe clinical findings, treatments, and outcome in camelids treated for osseous sequestration.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—27 alpacas and 9 llamas with osseous sequestration.
Procedures—Medical records of 2 veterinary teaching hospitals were reviewed to identify camelids evaluated because of osseous sequestration between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2010. Data on history, signalment, physical examination and medical imaging findings, treatment, and complications were collected.
Results—Records of 36 camelids were included, of which there were 22 sexually intact males, 11 females, and 2 castrated males with a median age of 7. 5 months, 3.9 months, and 8.5 years, respectively (age and sex were not available for 1 camelid). The most common clinical signs were lameness, swelling over the affected bone, and associated draining sinus. Sequestra were associated with trauma in 7 (19%) camelids. Camelids with sequestra not associated with trauma (n = 29 [81%]) were significantly younger than those with sequestra attributed to trauma. Thirty-four camelids underwent sequestrectomy, and all survived to hospital discharge (median duration of hospitalization, 6.5 days). Recurrence of a sequestrum occurred twice in 1 (3%) camelid. Long-term follow-up (≥ 12 months) information was available on 24 camelids, of which 20 (83%) recovered without long-term complications.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Unlike in other livestock, trauma was not a primary cause of osseous sequestration in camelids. Sequestra should be considered in the differential diagnostic process in camelids with lameness, a draining sinus, or a firm swelling over a bony prominence. Sequestrectomy is a successful treatment option.
OBJECTIVE To describe clinical findings and diagnostic test results and identify potential prognostic indicators for calves with septic arthritis.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 64 calves with septic arthritis.
PROCEDURES The medical record database for a veterinary teaching hospital was searched to identify calves ≤ 6 months old that were treated for septic arthritis between 2009 and 2014. Data evaluated included signalment, history, physical examination and diagnostic test results, treatment, and outcome. Descriptive data were generated, and calves were assigned to 2 groups (neonatal [≤ 28 days old] or postneonatal [29 to 180 days old]) on the basis of age at hospital admission for comparison purposes.
RESULTS 64 calves had 92 infected joints; 17 calves had polyarthritis. Carpal joints were most frequently affected followed by the stifle and tarsal joints. Forty-nine bacterial isolates were identified from synovial specimens for 38 calves, and the most commonly identified isolates were catalase-negative Streptococcus spp (n = 14) and Mycoplasma bovis (9). Calves in the neonatal group had a shorter interval between onset of clinical signs and hospitalization and were more likely to have an infected carpal joint than calves in the postneonatal group. Outcome was positive for 35 calves. Synovial fluid total nucleated cell count was positively associated with a positive outcome.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that empirical antimicrobial treatment for calves with septic arthritis should target gram-positive catalase-negative cocci and M bovis and that synovial fluid total nucleated cell count might be a useful prognostic indicator.
To determine the prognostic value of lactate concentration measurements at admission in cattle with long-bone fractures.
43 cattle with long-bone fractures between July 2016 and Dec 2018.
In this prospective cohort study, lactate concentration was measured in systemic venous blood and locally in capillary blood sampled from the fractured and contralateral limbs of cattle and assessed for outcome prediction. The cutoff value was determined by maximizing the Youden index from receiver-operating characteristic curves. Multivariable logistic regression was employed to verify whether higher lactate concentrations compared with the cutoff value were an independent risk factor for poor outcomes at 30 days or 3 years after admission.
Poor outcome was associated with higher capillary lactate concentration in the fractured limb (P < .001) and greater difference with systemic blood (P = .005). A cutoff value of lactate difference ≥ 2.4 mmol/L (sensitivity = 0.80; specificity = 0.965) between capillary lactate in the fractured limb and systemic blood was the best predictor of death ≤ 30 days after admission (P < .001). Multivariable analysis revealed that this cutoff value was an independent risk factor for 30-day and 3-year outcomes (P < .001).
Admission blood lactate concentration difference ≥ 2.4 mmol/L between the fractured limb and systemic blood was a robust and independent predictor of outcome for cattle of the present report. Lactate metabolism is locally impaired in fractured limbs of nonsurviving or at higher complication risk cattle, which may help identify patients at high risk for poor outcomes.
To evaluate the association between serum phosphorus concentration and the outcome of postpartum downer cows.
Postpartum downer dairy cows presented over a 22-year period.
In this cross-sectional study (1994 to 2016), medical records of all postpartum downer cows presented to a referral large animal hospital were reviewed. The association between serum inorganic phosphorus concentration and survival was assessed using a multivariable logistic regression.
907 postpartum downer dairy cows were included and classified as hypophosphatemic (mild: > 2.25 to < 3.25 mg/dL, moderate: > 1.50 to ≤ 2.25 mg/dL, and severe: ≤ 1.50 mg/dL), normophosphatemic (≥ 3.25 and ≤ 8.76 mg/dL) or hyperphosphatemic (> 8.76 mg/dL). Hypophosphatemia was observed in 19.4% of the cows (n = 176). Of those, 54.5% (n = 96) were also hypocalcemic. Overall, 58.4% cows (n = 530) survived after hospitalization. Hypophosphatemia was not significantly associated with the outcome of postpartum downer cows (mild: OR = 1.0, 95% CI: 0.6 to 1.8; moderate: OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.2 to 1.1; severe: OR = 1.0, 95% CI: 0.4 to 2.4).
Low serum phosphorus concentration was frequently observed with hypocalcemia and was not associated with the outcome of postpartum downer cows.
To describe the clinical and clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment, and outcome for cattle that developed a retroperitoneal abscess (RA) following paralumbar fossa laparotomy (PFL).
32 Holstein cows with RA.
The record database of a veterinary teaching hospital was searched to identify cattle that were treated for an RA between January 1995 and March 2017. Cattle with an RA > 30 cm in diameter located 3.5 cm subjacent to the skin that had undergone a PFL < 3 months before examination for the RA were evaluated. Information extracted from the record of each cow included signalment; physical examination, clinicopathologic, and transabdominal ultrasonographic findings; treatments administered; and outcome. Milk production data were analyzed for the lactations before, during, and after RA treatment.
Common physical examination findings were rumen hypomotility, anorexia, and fever, and common clinicopathologic findings were anemia and neutrophilia. Abdominal palpation per rectum and transabdominal ultrasonography facilitated RA diagnosis and identification of the optimal location for drainage. Thirty of 32 cows underwent surgical drainage of the RA and prolonged administration of systemic antimicrobials. Two cows were euthanized because of concurrent peritonitis, including 1 that underwent surgical RA drainage. Thirty cows were discharged from the hospital alive, and most returned to their previous level of milk production.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Although uncommon, RA should be suspected in cows that develop anorexia and fever within 3 months after PFL. Cows with RA often returned to their previous level of milk production, but treatment was generally prolonged and costly.
Objective—To characterize duodenal sigmoid flexure volvulus (DSFV) and determine the prognosis for affected cattle undergoing surgery.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—29 dairy cattle.
Procedures—The medical records were analyzed for history, signalment, clinical signs, medical management, surgical findings, and outcome.
Results—29 cattle were determined to have DSFV between December 2006 and August 2010. Twenty cattle had had an omentopexy or pyloropexy performed 1 day to 2 years before initial evaluation. Cattle were afebrile, tachycardic, and moderately dehydrated, with a small zone of percussion with a ping at the 10th to 12th right intercostal spaces and associated succussion. Biochemical changes were a severe hypokalemic (mean ± SD, 2.9 ± 0.5 mmol/L; median, 3.1 mmol/L; range, 2.08 to 3.92 mmol/L), hypochloremic (mean, 69.7 ± 11.1 mmol/L; median, 71.7 mmol/L; range, 49.1 to 94.1 mmol/L) metabolic alkalosis (mean total CO2, 44.5 ± 7.4 mmol/L; median, 45.3 mmol/L; range, 31.5 to 59.6 mmol/L) and hyperbilirubinemia (mean, 32.4 ± 29.0 μmol/L; median, 20.5 μmol/L; range, 7.8 to 107 μmol/L). Surgical findings for DSFV included an empty descending duodenum adjacent to a dorsally displaced and dilated cranial segment of the duodenum, distended abomasum and gallbladder, and a tight volvulus at the base of the duodenal sigmoid flexure. Manual reduction was considered successful if the descending duodenum filled after cranial duodenal massage. Twenty-two patients were successfully treated; the remaining 7 died or were euthanized within 4 days after surgery.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A condition clinically resembling abomasal volvulus but affecting the duodenal sigmoid flexure has been recognized in dairy cattle. When a focal, dorsal right-sided ping and succussion are present combined with severe hypokalemic, hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis and high bilirubin concentration, DSFV should be suspected, especially when there is a history of prior abomasal fixation. After surgical correction, the prognosis is fair to good.