A 17-year-old female Asian small-clawed otter (Amblonyx cinereus) was anesthetized for a routine physical examination. Prior to induction of anesthesia, the otter was bright, alert, and responsive and its mentation, appetite, and activity level were normal according to zookeepers. On physical examination, the otter was in good body condition, with no overt external abnormalities. Abdominal palpation revealed 2 small firm kidneys, with the right smaller than the left. Serum concentrations of urea nitrogen (32 mg/dL; reference range, 6 to 64 mg/dL; mean, 23 ± 9 mg/dL) and creatinine (0.9 mg/dL; reference range, 0.3 to 2.0 mg/dL; mean,
A 12.5-year-old sexually intact male Prevost's squirrel (Callosciurus prevostii) was evaluated because of rightsided facial swelling and a recent history of dysphagia and stridor. The squirrel was anesthetized to allow for physical examination and collection of blood samples. Physical examination revealed a fracture of the maxillary right third premolar tooth and an associated abscess. Results of hematologic and serum biochemical testing were within reference limits for this species. While the squirrel was anesthetized, radiographs of the skull were obtained (Figure 1).
Dorsoventral (A) and right lateral (B) radiographic views
Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics of
enrofloxacin after oral administration to captive elephants.
Animals—6 clinically normal adult Asian elephants
Procedure—Each elephant received a single dose of
enrofloxacin (2.5 mg/kg, PO). Three elephants
received their complete diet (pellets and grain) within
2 hours after enrofloxacin administration, whereas
the other 3 elephants received only hay within 6
hours after enrofloxacin administration. Serum concentrations
of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were
measured by use of high-performance liquid
Results—Harmonic mean half-life after oral administration
was 18.4 hours for all elephants. Mean ± SD peak
serum concentration of enrofloxacin was 1.31 ±
0.40 µg/mL at 5.0 ± 4.2 hours after administration. Mean
area under the curve was 20.72 ± 4.25 (µg × h)/mL.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Oral administration
of enrofloxacin to Asian elephants has a prolonged
elimination half-life, compared with the elimination
half-life for adult horses. In addition, potentially
therapeutic concentrations in elephants were
obtained when enrofloxacin was administered orally at
a dosage of 2.5 mg/kg. Analysis of these results suggests
that enrofloxacin administered with feed in the
manner described in this study could be a potentially
useful antimicrobial for use in treatment of captive
Asian elephants with infections attributable to organisms,
such as Bordetella spp, Escherichia coli,
Mycoplasma spp, Pasteurella spp, Haemophilus spp,
Salmonella spp, and Staphylococcus spp. (Am J Vet
A 12-year-old 3.4-kg (7.48-lb) vasectomized male ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) that appeared clinically normal and was kept at a zoological park was evaluated as part of a routine examination. The examination was performed while the lemur was under general anesthesia. On physical examination, a sperm granuloma was noted on the right testicle, which had remained unchanged since it was first identified 4 years earlier. No other abnormalities were detected on physical examination. Findings on CBC were within reference range. Serum biochemical analysis revealed mildly high alanine aminotransferase activity (which had been similarly high when measured 3 years
Bleeding as a result of trauma, hemorrhagic diseases, or primary platelet-related abnormalities is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in humans and animals.1–5 In humans, for example, hemorrhage is the most common cause of preventable death following traumatic injury in patients < 65 years of age and is a leading cause of potentially survivable deaths during military operations.1,3,6 Treatment for hemorrhage, in addition to supportive care and volume resuscitation, frequently includes IV administration of whole blood or platelet concentrates to counteract the effects of a rapid decrease in platelet numbers associated with platelet consumption and
To establish a reference interval for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) determined by measuring serum clearance of a single IV dose of inulin in clinically normal cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) and compare serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) concentration in cheetahs with GFR.
33 cheetahs housed at 3 institutions.
A single bolus of inulin (3,000 mg/m2) was administered IV, and 5 serial blood samples were collected and analyzed for serum inulin concentration with the anthrone technique. The GFR was estimated with a modified slope-intercept method for the slow component of the serum concentration-versus-time curve. Blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine concentrations were measured in samples obtained immediately prior to inulin administration, and serum SDMA concentration was measured in stored samples.
Mean ± SD measured GFR was 1.58 ± 0.39 mL/min/kg, and the calculated reference interval was 0.84 to 2.37 mL/min/kg. There were significant negative correlations between GFR and serum creatinine concentration (r = −0.499), BUN concentration (r = −0.592), and age (r = −0.463). Serum SDMA concentration was not significantly correlated with GFR (r = 0.385), BUN concentration (r = −0.281), or serum creatinine concentration (r = 0.165).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
A reference interval for GFR in clinically normal cheetahs was obtained. Further evaluation of animals with renal disease is needed to determine whether measuring serum clearance of a single IV dose of inulin is a reliable diagnostic test for early detection of renal disease in cheetahs.
Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetic properties of 1 IM injection of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) in American black ducks (Anas rubripes).
Animals—20 adult American black ducks (6 in a preliminary experiment and 14 in a primary experiment).
Procedures—Dose and route of administration of CCFA for the primary experiment were determined in a preliminary experiment. In the primary experiment, CCFA (10 mg/kg, IM) was administered to ducks. Ducks were allocated into 2 groups, and blood samples were obtained 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 48, 96, 144, 192, and 240 hours or 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 72, 120, 168, and 216 hours after administration of CCFA. Plasma concentrations of ceftiofur free acid equivalents (CFAEs) were determined by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. Data were evaluated by use of a naive pooled-data approach.
Results—The area under the plasma concentration versus time curve from 0 hours to infinity was 783 h•μg/mL, maximum plasma concentration observed was 13.1 μg/mL, time to maximum plasma concentration observed was 24 hours, terminal phase half-life was 32.0 hours, time that concentrations of CFAEs were higher than the minimum inhibitory concentration (1.0 μg/mL) for many pathogens of birds was 123 hours, and time that concentrations of CFAEs were higher than the target plasma concentration (4.0 μg/mL) was 73.3 hours.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of the time that CFAE concentrations were higher than the target plasma concentration, a dosing interval of 3 days can be recommended for future multidose CCFA studies.
OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence of and risk factors for clinical feline herpesvirus (FHV) infection in zoo-housed cheetahs and determine whether dam infection was associated with offspring infection.
DESIGN Retrospective cohort study.
ANIMALS 144 cheetah cubs born in 6 zoos from 1988 through 2007.
PROCEDURES Data were extracted from the health records of cheetahs and their dams to identify incident cases of clinical FHV infection and estimate incidence from birth to 18 months of age. Univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, controlling for correlations among cheetahs with the same dam, were used to identify risk factors for incident FHV infection.
RESULTS Cumulative incidence of FHV infection in cheetah cubs was 35% (50/144). No significant association between dam and offspring infection was identified in any model. Factors identified as significant through multivariable analysis varied by age group. For cheetahs up to 3 months of age, the most important predictor of FHV infection was having a dam that had received a preparturition FHV vaccine regimen that included a modified-live virus vaccine versus a dam that had received no preparturition vaccine. Other risk factors included being from a small litter, being born to a primiparous dam, and male sex.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This study provided the first population-level characterization of the incidence of and risk factors for FHV infection in cheetahs, and findings confirmed the importance of this disease. Recognition that clinical FHV infection in the dam was not a significant predictor of disease in cubs and identification of other significant factors have implications for disease management.