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- Author or Editor: Susanne K. Lauer x
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Objective—To evaluate the effect of treadmill incline on muscle activity and joint range of motion (ROM) in hind limbs of dogs.
Animals—8 purpose-bred healthy adult hounds.
Procedures—Activities of the hamstring (semimembranosus, semitendinosus, and biceps femoris muscles), gluteal (superficial, middle, and deep gluteal muscles), and quadriceps (femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, and vastus medialis muscles) muscle groups and hip and stifle joint ROM were measured with surface electrogoniometric and myographic sensors in hounds walking on a treadmill at 0.54 m/s at inclines of 5%, 0%, and −5% in random order. Mean electromyographic activities and mean ROMs at each inclination were compared for swing and stance phases.
Results—Treadmill inclination did not affect duration of the stance and swing phases or the whole stride. When treadmill inclination was increased from −5% to 5%, hip joint ROM increased and the degree of stifle joint extension decreased significantly. In the beginning of the stance phase, activity of the hamstring muscle group was significantly increased when walking at a 5% incline versus a 5% decline. In the end of the stance phase, that activity was significantly increased when walking at a 5% incline versus at a 5% decline or on a flat surface. Activity of the gluteal and quadriceps muscle groups was not affected when treadmill inclination changed.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treadmill inclination affected joint kinematics only slightly. Walking on a treadmill at a 5% incline had more potential to strengthen the hamstring muscle group than walking on a treadmill with a flat or declined surface.
Objective—To evaluate chondrocyte death in canine articular cartilage exposed in vitro to bupivacaine with and without methylparaben and to compare viability for cartilage with intact or mechanically debrided surfaces.
Sample Population—Both glenohumeral joints from 10 adult canine cadavers.
Procedures—10 osteochondral cores were harvested from each of the 20 humeral heads; synovium and 1 core from each joint were examined to verify joint health, and the other 9 cores were exposed to canine chondrocyte culture medium (CCCM), a 0.5% solution of bupivacaine, or 0.5% solution of bupivacaine with methylparaben for 5, 15, or 30 minutes.
Results—For the superficial zone of surface-intact chondrocytes, bupivacaine with methylparaben caused a significantly higher percentage of chondrocyte death at 5 minutes (47.7%) than did bupivacaine (23.6%) or CCCM (25.4%). Bupivacaine (53.8%) and bupivacaine with methylparaben (62.5%) caused a significantly higher percentage of chondrocyte death at 30 minutes than did CCCM (20.0%). For the superficial zone of chondrocytes with debrided surfaces, bupivacaine with methylparaben caused a significantly higher percentage of chondrocyte death at 30 minutes (59%) than it did at 5 minutes (37.7%). Bupivacaine with methylparaben caused a significantly higher percentage of chondrocyte death at 30 minutes (59.0%) than did CCCM (28.9%). For middle and deep zones of chondrocytes, treatment solution and surface debridement had minimal effects on percentage of chondrocyte death.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Bupivacaine and bupivacaine with methylparaben were cytotoxic to canine articular chondrocytes in vitro. Intra-articular administration of bupivacaine is not recommended for clinical use until additional studies are conducted.
Objective—To compare the ease and effects of collecting blood from cats by use of subcutaneous totally implantable vascular access ports (VAPs) with collection via conventional jugular phlebotomy.
Design—Prospective randomized experimental study.
Animals—8 healthy cats.
Procedures—Cats in the port group (n = 4) underwent monthly blood donation by use of VAPs and manual restraint, and cats in the nonport group (4) underwent monthly blood donation by use of conventional jugular phlebotomy and sedation, for 6 months.
Results—Postsurgical VAP-related complications developed in 3 cats and included port erosion (n = 1), disconnection of the port from the catheter (1), and seroma formation (1). Blood was successfully collected 24 of 24 and 20 of 20 times in the nonport and port groups, respectively. Results of bacterial culture of blood were negative in 22 of 24 and 15 of 20 nonport and port collections, respectively. No differences in RBC morphology were observed between groups. Mean blood collection and total donation times were significantly longer for the nonport group. Collection time was more variable in the nonport group, and cats were less tolerant of handling during venipuncture, compared with cats in the port group. Blood collection required a mean of 2.4 persons for the nonport group and 2.1 persons for the port group.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Positive results for blood collections via VAPs were increased donor acceptance, decreased number of personnel required, and decreased collection time. Drawbacks included contamination of blood products and port-related complications.