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  • Author or Editor: Susanne A. E. B. Boroffka x
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Objective—To assess intra- and interobserver repeatability of ocular biometric measurements obtained by means of high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography in dogs.

Animals—6 Beagles without ocular abnormalities.

Procedures—B-mode ultrasonography was performed bilaterally with a 10.5-MHz broadband compact linear array transducer. All measurements were made on 2 different occasions by 2 observers. The Bland-Altman method was used to assess agreement between measurements obtained by the 2 observers and between the 2 sets of measurements obtained by each observer.

Results—Intra- and interobserver repeatability was highest for larger measurements, such as depth of the eye and depth of the anterior chamber. When repeatability was examined, bias was significantly different from 0 for only a few measurements, but the percentage difference between observations was as high as 180% for some measurements.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that most measurements of intraocular distances and structures obtained by means of high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography have acceptable intra- and interobserver repeatability. However, the percentage difference between observations can be high for smaller measurements.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To describe clinical, ultrasonographic, and computed tomographic (CT) features of confirmed neoplastic and nonneoplastic disease in dogs with unilateral orbital diseases, determine criteria to differentiate between the 2 conditions, and assess the relative value of ultrasonography and CT for the differential diagnosis of these 2 conditions.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—29 dogs with unilateral neoplastic orbital disease and 16 dogs with unilateral nonneoplastic orbital disease.

Procedures—Clinical history and results of physical and ophthalmologic examinations were recorded. Ultrasonographic and CT images were evaluated, and discriminating factors were identified to differentiate neoplastic from nonneoplastic diseases. Diagnostic value of ultrasonography and CT was assessed.

Results—Dogs with neoplastic disease were significantly older; had clinical signs for a longer time before initial examination; had more progressive onset of clinical signs; and more frequently had protrusion of the nictitating membrane, fever, and anorexia. The most discriminating factor for both imaging modalities was delineation of the margins (odds ratio was 41.7 for ultrasonography and 45 for CT), with neoplastic lesions clearly delineated more often. Ultrasonographically, neoplastic lesions were more frequently hypoechoic and homogeneous, with indentation of the globe and bone involvement evident more frequently than for nonneoplastic lesions. Mineralization was detected only with neoplasia. Fluctuant fluid was seen more frequently in dogs with nonneoplastic disease. Computed tomography more frequently revealed extraorbital involvement. Diagnostic value was similar for both imaging modalities.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ultrasonography and CT are valuable imaging modalities to assist in differentiating neoplastic from nonneoplastic unilateral orbital disease in dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To describe clinical and diagnostic imaging features of zygomatic sialadenitis in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—11 dogs with zygomatic sialadenitis and 20 control dogs without evidence of retrobulbar disease.

Procedures—Medical records were searched for dogs with zygomatic sialadenitis that underwent some combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and ultrasonography. Signalment, clinical signs, results of clinicopathologic tests, cytologic and histologic diagnosis, treatment, qualitative disease features, and disease course were recorded. Images obtained via MRI or CT were analyzed for pre- and postcontrast signal intensity or density, respectively; zygomatic salivary gland area was determined. Results were compared with those of control dogs that underwent the same imaging procedures (n = 10/method). Ultrasonographic images of affected dogs were assessed qualitatively.

Results—Most (9/11) affected dogs were medium- or large-breed males (mean age, 8 years) with unilateral disease. Affected dogs had clinical signs of retrobulbar disease and cytologic or histologic evidence of zygomatic sialadenitis. Sialoceles were detected in 7 affected glands. Compared with values for control dogs, MRI findings in affected dogs (n = 7) included gland enlargement, T1-weighted hypointensity, T2-weighted hyperintensity, and increased contrast enhancement; CT features in affected dogs (2) included gland enlargement and hypodensity on unenhanced images. Retrobulbar masses were identified via ultrasonography in 9 of 10 orbits examined, and zygomatic salivary gland origin was detected in 4.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Visualization of anatomic structures for diagnosis of zygomatic sialadenitis and evaluation of adjacent structures was excellent via MRI and CT Ultrasonography was less definitive but useful for sample collection.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association