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Electrodiagnostic visual testing (electroretinogram [erg] and visual-evoked potential [vep]) was performed on 5 ruminants (3 lambs, 1 kid, and 1 steer) with thiamine-responsive polioencephalomalacia (pem) and on 2 sheep with listeriosis. The lambs and kid had typical clinical signs of pem, especially blindness. In these animals, the erg was normal but the vep was abnormal. Follow-up recordings in the kid and 1 lamb indicated an improvement in vep recordings accompanying a gradual return of vision after thiamine treatment. Possible subtle changes in vep peak latencies could not be assessed because of lack of normative vep data for sheep and goats. All animals had complete return of vision (owner-assessed). The steer did not have signs of blindness, and the erg and vep were normal. Changes in vep accompanying permanent pem blindness are not known.

One sheep with suspected listeriosis had lack of menace response and palpebral and corneal reflexes, but had intact vision. The erg and vep were normal. The second sheep with suspected listeriosis had intact menace response and vision, but became acutely blind and died; the ERG was normal, but vep amplitudes were depressed.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


To examine Escherichia coli isolates obtained from dogs dying with diarrhea for heat-labile, heat-stable, and Shiga-like toxins and for the eaeA gene, which is associated with attaching and effacing lesions.


Retrospective study.


122 dogs.


E coli isolates were tested by means of dot-blot hybridization of DNA extracts of cultured bacteria. Medical records of dogs from which E coli isolates with virulence genes had been isolated were examined, and histologic findings and evidence of intercurrent bacterial and viral infections were recorded.


None of the E coli isolates obtained from these dogs produced heat-labile, heat-stable, or Shiga-like toxins; however, E coli isolates from 44 of 122 dogs were found to have the eaeA gene. Histologically, multifocal bacterial adherence to the epithelium and epithelial necrosis and detachment were seen in colonic specimens from 20 of 44 (45%) dogs. Escherichia coli was the sole pathogen identified in 15 of 44 (34%) dogs. Intercurrent pathogens, including canine parvovirus (n = 19). Clostridium perfringens (8), rotavirus (5). hookworms (3). coccidia (3). and Salmonella agona (1). were identified in the remaining 29 (66%) dogs.

Clinical Implications

Attaching and effacing E coli can be a primary or secondary pathogen in dogs with diarrhea. Antibiotic treatment is indicated in dogs with diarrhea because of the possibility that it is primarily bacterial in origin and because, even if it is primarily viral in origin, there may be secondary bacterial infection. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212:1735–1736)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To compare distributions of survivin among tissues from urinary bladders of dogs with cystitis, transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), or histologically normal urinary bladders.

Sample Population—24 archived and 7 fresh-frozen specimens of urinary bladders from dogs with cystitis.

Procedures—Immunohistochemical analysis of archived tissue specimens was performed to identify survivin protein in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells by use of polyclonal rabbit anti-survivin antibody. Tissues that contained ≥ 5% immunoreactive cells were considered positive for survivin protein. Reverse-transcription PCR analysis was performed on fresh-frozen tissues to identify survivin mRNA. Data on tissues from dogs with TCC or histologically normal urinary bladders that were obtained during another study were used for statistical comparisons.

Results—Twelve of 24 (50%) cystitic tissues were positive for nuclear survivin, compared with 28 of 41 (68%) TCC tissues and 0 of 46 (0%) normal tissues. Two of 24 (8%) cystitic tissues were positive for cytoplasmic survivin, compared with 7 of 41 (17%) TCC tissues and 17 of 46 (37%) normal tissues. Proportions of specimens that contained nuclear or cytoplasmic survivin were significantly different between cystitic and normal tissues but not between cystitic and TCC tissues. Four of 7 cystitic tissues were positive for survivin mRNA, which was comparable with results for TCC and normal tissues.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Nuclear survivin was detected in TCC and cystitic tissues but not in normal urinary bladder tissues. Additional studies are needed to determine whether nuclear survivin contributes to the development or progression of TCC.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To characterize the biological behavior and prognostic factors associated with hemangiosarcoma in cats.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—53 cats with hemangiosarcoma.

Procedures—Data were retrieved from a state veterinary diagnostic laboratory, 3 veterinary colleges, and a private practice.

Results—Cutaneous and subcutaneous tumor locations were more common than visceral (abdominal and thoracic) and oral locations. Surgical excision was the primary treatment in 47 cats. Tumor-free surgical margins were more likely in cutaneous than subcutaneous lesions and were associated with longer survival times. Local recurrence was observed in 6 of 12 cats with subcutaneous lesions for which follow-up was available. Metastatic disease was detected in 5 of 13 cats with adequate staging at initial diagnosis. A sixth cat had pulmonary metastases at the time of euthanasia. In 4 of 10 cats with visceral hemangiosarcoma, the diagnosis was made at necropsy or they were euthanized at the time of diagnosis. Adjuvant therapy was uncommonly used. Eighteen of the 21 known deaths or euthanasias were tumor-related. Higher mitotic counts (> 3 in 10 hpfs) were associated with shorter survival times.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Subcutaneous hemangiosarcoma was more biologically aggressive than the cutaneous form and was more likely to recur locally and result in euthanasia or death of the cat. Metastatic potential of the cutaneous and subcutaneous forms may be greater than previously reported. Visceral hemangiosarcoma is associated with a grave prognosis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Parvovirus infection was confirmed by fluorescent antibody staining of or viral isolation from specimens of small intestine in 181 (17%) of 1,110 dogs necropsied between July 1, 1987 and Dec 31, 1990. Clostridium perfringens was isolated from 74 (69%) of 108 dogs with parvovirus infection from which specimens of jejunum also had been obtained for culture of anaerobic bacteria. Gram-positive bacilli in association with focal to diffuse necrosis of the superficial portions of the villi were observed in histologic sections of specimens of small intestine from 56 (98%) of 57 dogs from which parvovirus and C perfringens had been identified. These findings indicate that C perfringens frequently proliferates in dogs with parvovirus infection.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine immunoreactivity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -3, and -13 in cartilaginous tumors of dogs, correlate expression of MMP with histologic grade of tumors and clinical outcome of dogs, and compare MMP immunoreactivity between chondrosarcomas and chondromas.

Sample Population—Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues obtained from samples of naturally occurring chondrosarcomas (n = 31) and chondromas (8) of dogs that were submitted to our veterinary medical diagnostic laboratory.

Procedure—Histologic sections from each sample were stained with H&E and monoclonal antibody to MMP-1, -3, and -13 by use of an avidin-peroxidase immunohistochemical technique. For each section, histologic grade (I, II, or III) and immunohistochemical expression (0, 1, 2, or 3) were evaluated. Clinical outcome was obtained from medical records or interviews with referring veterinarians and scored as a good outcome, moderate outcome, or poor outcome. Correlations among variables and differences between chondrosarcomas and chondromas were analyzed.

Results—Samples from chondrosarcomas had significantly higher immunoreactivity of MMP-1 and -13, compared with immunoreactivity in samples from chondromas. In chondrosarcomas, a significant positive correlation (r, 0.386) was found between MMP-1 and -13 immunoreactivities, and a significant negative correlation (r, –0.390) was detected between MMP-3 and -13 immunoreactivities.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—A significant increase in expression of collagenases (MMP-1 and - 13) in chondrosarcomas, compared with expression in chondromas, suggests that collagenases may play an important role in tumor progression, and possibly metastasis, in chondrosarcomas of dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1285–1291)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate the clinical and pathologic characteristics of mammary duct ectasia in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—51 dogs with mammary duct ectasia.

Procedure—Information regarding body condition, history, number and location of affected mammary glands, appearance of lesions, surgical treatment, nonsurgical treatment, and evidence of recurrence or development of mammary neoplasia was obtained from surveys sent to referring veterinarians. Results of information from examination of histologic sections and referring veterinarians were evaluated for all mammary duct ectasia biopsies performed between 1992 and 1999.

Results—Duct ectasia was the primary diagnosis in 51 of 1,825 (2.8%) mammary biopsy specimens and comprised 48% of nonneoplastic mammary diseases. Affected dogs were evenly distributed over a range of 1 to 13 years of age, with a mean age at the time of diagnosis of 6.1 ± 3.1 years. All dogs were female (31 sexually intact, 20 spayed); 10 of 26 had whelped. Duct ectasia was described as nodular (26 dogs), cystic (13), and multiglandular (11) and located in caudal (31) more often than cranial (14) or middle glands (10). Ectasia recurred in 3 dogs. One dog had a history of previously excised mammary adenocarcinoma; another subsequently developed mammary carcinoma.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Duct ectasia affected mature, sexually intact and spayed female dogs over a wide age range. Certain breeds were affected more commonly than expected. Increased risk for mammary neoplasia was not evident. Duct ectasia should be considered as a cause for mammary enlargement, especially in young dogs or when its cystic nature is evident. Mastectomy is usually curative, and neoplasia should be ruled out in dogs with ectasia. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1303–1307)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association