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History

A 4-month-old female chicken with a 48-hour history of progressively worsening, unilateral ocular discharge and periocular swelling was submitted for necropsy. This hen was in a flock of 18 chickens that, at any given time, included 4 to 8 similarly affected chickens. The flock was treated for 1 month with oxytetracycline-medicated feed on the basis of the veterinarian's recommendations. The affected chickens' condition improved after treatment, but clinical signs never completely resolved. Within the 48-hour period prior to death of the hen, its left eye started to progressively swell. Three other hens in the flock reportedly had mild periocular

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for aerobic bacteria isolated from reptilian samples and, from those patterns, identify antimicrobials that could be considered for empirical treatment of reptiles with suspected bacterial infections.

SAMPLES

129 bacterial isolates from 61 of 127 samples from 96 reptiles.

PROCEDURES

Medical records of reptiles (chelonian, crocodilian, lizard, and snake) presented to the zoological medical service of a veterinary teaching hospital between January 2005 and December 2016 were reviewed for submissions of patient samples for aerobic bacterial culture and susceptibility testing. Sample type, presence or absence of bacterial growth, and antimicrobial susceptibilities of isolated bacteria were recorded. The isolation frequency and the antimicrobial susceptibilities of bacterial genera and species were tabulated.

RESULTS

Pseudomonas spp and Enterococcus spp were the most frequently isolated gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. Isolates of gram-negative bacteria frequently had susceptibility to amikacin (86%), gentamicin (95%), tobramycin (92%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (83%), and gram-positive bacteria frequently had susceptibility to ampicillin (83%), chloramphenicol (92%), doxycycline (100%), and gentamicin (100%). Isolates of gram-positive bacteria were consistently resistant to ceftazidime.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Aerobic bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility results for reptilian samples in this population indicated that aminoglycosides and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or ampicillin and doxycycline could be considered as options for the empirical treatment of reptiles with infections caused by gram-negative or gram-positive bacteria, respectively.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 1.5-year-old sexually intact female privately owned pet Fancy Rat (Rattus norvegicus) was evaluated at the University of Georgia Small Animal Emergency Clinic because of acute lethargy, recent inappetence, and a sudden onset of dyspnea. The rat had a history of a subcutaneous mass on the left lateral aspect of the thorax that had been enlarging over a period of 5 to 6 months. Approximately 1 month prior to the evaluation, a diagnosis of respiratory infection had been made by the referring veterinarian; the rat was successfully treated with an antimicrobial and an NSAID. The rat was

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History and Physical Examination Findings

A 6.5-year-old 5.65-kg (12.43-lb) castrated male Himalayan cat was referred for evaluation of a ventrally expanding hard palate. A few weeks prior to referral, the owners noted that the cat had developed a tendency to tilt its head slightly while it was eating. They also felt that the cat had difficulty prehending normally because food was accumulating on the fur around its mouth. A preliminary extraoral examination, including palpation of the skull and mandibular lymph nodes, cranial nerve assessment, ocular retropulsion, evaluation of temporomandibular range of motion, and testing of the nares for air movement

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 5-year-old 38.3-kg (84.5-lb) mixed-breed dog was examined because of acute onset of lethargy and anorexia. Four days later, a raised, firm, warm 15 × 10-cm lesion was detected in the right caudal paralumbar area.

Clinical Findings—Cephalexin treatment yielded a poor response. Formalin-fixed tissue and fluid samples from the cystic areas of the lesion were submitted for cytologic and histologic examinations, routine bacterial and mycobacterial culture, and genus identification and 16S partial sequencing via PCR assays. Cytologic examination revealed chronic pyogranulomatous inflammation. Histologic examination by use of routine, Giemsa, silver, acid-fast, and modified acid-fast stains revealed multifocal nodular granulomatous panniculitis without identifiable organisms. Mycobacteria were initially identified via PCR assay and mycobacterial culture within 3 days. Mycobaterium goodii was speciated by use of partial 16S RNA sequence analysis.

Treatment and Outcome—The lesion resolved after long-term treatment with a combination of rifampin and clarithromycin and insertion of a Penrose drain. There has been no recurrence of the condition.

Clinical Relevance— M goodii is an environmental rapidly growing mycobacterium and is a zoonotic pathogen. Infections have not been previously reported in domestic animals in North America, although there are rare reports of infection in humans associated with surgery, especially surgical implants. Domestic animals are a potential sentinel for this non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection in humans, although lack of speciation in infections of domestic animals likely underestimates the potential public health importance of this pathogenic organism. Current microbiological molecular methods allow for a rapid and inexpensive diagnosis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 2-year-old vaccinated neutered male Golden Retriever was imported from Turkey, at which time it weighed 28.3 kg (62.3 lb). It had a high titer of circulating antibodies against Ehrlichia canis and hyperglobulinemia. Initial treatment for ehrlichiosis included doxycycline. One month later, the dog weighed 28.7 kg (63.1 lb) and it had hyperglobulinemia with hypoalbuminemia. Ultrasonographic findings included enlarged hepatic lymph nodes, mesenteric mineralization, and diffusely hyperechoic hepatic parenchyma with ill-defined, hypoechoic nodules. Over 2 months, multiple acquired portosystemic shunts, portal hypertension, and mineralized hepatic lymph nodes, mild hypoglycemia, high serum total protein concentration with hyperglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia,

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 12-year-old sexually intact female llama (Lama glama) was submitted for necropsy following euthanasia (by IV injection of an unspecified drug) by the referring veterinarian. The llama had a 1-year-long history of a mass on the right mandible that was refractory to antimicrobial treatment. The llama was submitted with the carcass of a 2-year-old female llama that had a firm swelling on the left maxilla but was euthanized for unrelated reasons.

Gross Findings

On external examination, the llama had a body condition score of 1/5 with scant subcutaneous adi-pose stores. The oral cavity had a large amount

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether a novel third-generation chelating agent (8mM disodium EDTA dehydrate and 20mM 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1, 3-propanediol) would act as an antimicrobial potentiator to enhance in vitro activity of antifungal medications against fungal isolates obtained from horses with mycotic keratitis.

Sample Population—Fungal isolates (3 Aspergillus isolates, 5 Fusarium isolates, 1 Penicillium isolate, 1 Cladosporium isolate, and 1 Curvularia isolate) obtained from horses with mycotic keratitis and 2 quality-control strains obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC; Candida albicans ATCC 90028 and Paecilomyces variotii ATCC 36257).

Procedure—Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against fungal isolates for 4 antifungal drugs (miconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole, and natamycin) were compared with MICs against fungal isolates for the combinations of each of the 4 antifungal drugs and the chelating agent. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute microdilution assay method was performed by use of reference-grade antifungal powders against the fungal isolates and quality-control strains of fungi.

Results—Values for the MIC at which the antifungal drugs decreased the growth of an organism by 50% (MIC50) and 90% (MIC90) were decreased for the control strains and ophthalmic fungal isolates by 50% to 100% when the drugs were used in combination with the chelating agent at a concentration of up to 540 μg/mL.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The chelating agent increased in vitro activity of antifungal drugs against common fungal pathogens isolated from eyes of horses with mycotic keratitis.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research