Objective—To determine whether a Helicobacter sp
similar to Helicobacter pylori in the stomachs of
humans could be isolated from the stomachs of pigs.
Animals—4 young conventionally reared and 21 gnotobiotic
Procedure—Gastric mucosal homogenates (10%
wt/vol) from 4 young conventionally reared pigs were
cultured on Skirrow medium under microaerophilic
conditions to assess the presence of Helicobacter
spp. Colonies with morphologic features compatible
with Helicobacter organisms were selected, tested for
urease activity, and subpassaged on Skirrow medium.
Isolates were examined via SDS-PAGE electrophoresis
and reciprocal western blot analyses involving convalescent
sera from monoinfected gnotobiotic pigs.
Results—Urease- and catalase-positive, gram-negative,
microaerophilic, small, curved rod bacteria were
isolated from the gastric mucosa of young healthy
pigs. The first isolate (2662) was structurally and
immunologically closely related to H pylori isolated
from humans. The second isolate (1268) displayed an
SDS-PAGE profile dissimilar to that of H pylori and isolate
2662, yet it shared limited immunologic crossreactivity
with these microbes.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings of
this study indicate that development of gastric
mucosal ulcers and ulceration of the nonglandular
pars esophagea in pigs may be associated with gastric
colonization by swine-origin Helicobacter spp,
which are similar to H pylori isolated from humans.
(Am J Vet Res 2005;66:938–944)
Objective—To determine the prevalence of antibodies against a swine-origin Helicobacter pylori–like organism (HPLO) and H pylori in conventionally reared swine.
Animals—640 conventionally reared swine of various ages from 16 high-health farms in Canada, 20 sows from Ohio, and 35 gnotobiotic swine.
Procedures—Blood was collected from the cranial vena cava. Sera were collected and tested via ELISA for antibodies against antigen prepared from a swine-origin HPLO and human H pylori strain 26695.
Results—Antibodies reactive with a swine HPLO, H pylori, or both were detected in 483 of 640 swine from all 16 farms in western Canada. Seroprevalence varied with age and was low (5.6%) in suckling (≤ 4-week-old) swine and increasingly high in swine ranging from > 4 weeks old to adulthood.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings suggested that colonization by a swine-origin HPLO, H pylori, or both and resultant seroconversion, like that of H pylori infection in humans, were common in commercial swine operations. Furthermore, data indicated that gastric infection was acquired at an early age. The relationships to gastric colonization by HPLOs and clinical manifestations of disease such as gastritis and gastroesophageal ulceration remain to be determined.
Objective—To determine whether commercial Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae bacterins sold for use in swine contain porcine torque teno virus (TTV).
Sample Population—22 commercially available M hyopneumoniae bacterins.
Procedures—Direct and nested PCR assays for genogroup-specific TTV DNAs were performed on serials of M hyopneumoniae bacterins by use of published and custom-designed primer pairs at 3 laboratories in North America and Europe.
Results—Of the 22 bacterins tested by use of direct and nested PCR assays, 7 of 9 from the United States, 2 of 5 from Canada, and 4 of 8 from Europe contained genogroup 1– and genogroup 2–TTV DNAs. In some bacterins, the TTV DNAs were readily detected by use of direct PCR assays.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of these data indicated that many of the commercially available M hyopneumoniae bacterins were contaminated with TTV DNA. It is possible that some of these bacterins could inadvertently transmit porcine TTV infection to TTV-naïve swine.