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An 11-year-old 27-kg castrated male Bull Terrier was evaluated because of left thoracic limb lameness of a few weeks’ duration. The dog was resident in the UK with no history of trauma or foreign travel. The dog had previously been diagnosed with allergic skin disease but was not receiving any treatment for this at the time of examination.

On physical examination, the dog had vital signs within reference limits. On gait examination, a moderate left thoracic limb lameness was observed. Signs of pain were elicited on palpation of the left humerus. No abnormalities were detected on routine hematologic and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To characterize pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide and 4-hydoxycyclophosphamide (4-OHCP) in the plasma of healthy cats after oral, IV, and IP administration of cyclophosphamide.

ANIMALS 6 healthy adult cats.

PROCEDURES Cats were randomly assigned to receive cyclophosphamide (200 mg/m2) via each of 3 routes of administration (oral, IV, and IP); there was a 30-day washout period between successive treatments. Plasma samples were obtained at various time points for up to 8 hours after administration. Samples were treated with semicarbazide hydrochloride to trap the 4-OHCP in stable form, which allowed for cyclophosphamide and trapped 4-OHCP to be simultaneously measured by use of tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from drug concentration-versus-time data for both cyclophosphamide and 4-OHCP.

RESULTS Cyclophosphamide was tolerated well regardless of route of administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters for 4-OHCP were similar after oral, IV, and IP administration. Area under the concentration-time curve for cyclophosphamide was lower after oral administration than after IV or IP administration.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Cyclophosphamide can be administered interchangeably to cats as oral, IV, and IP formulations, which should provide benefits with regard to cost and ease of administration to certain feline patients.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To assess histologic evaluation of mandibular lymph nodes (MLNs) and medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes (MRLNs) for metastatic disease during tumor staging for dogs with oral malignant melanoma (OMM) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).


Retrospective multi-institutional study.


27 dogs with OMM and 21 dogs with OSCC.


Medical record databases of 8 institutions were searched to identify dogs with OMM or OSCC that underwent unilateral or bilateral extirpation of the MLNs and MRLNs during the same procedure between January 2004 and April 2016. Information extracted from the records included signalment, primary mass location and size, diagnostic imaging results, histologic results for the primary tumor and all lymph nodes evaluated, and whether distant metastasis developed.


Prevalence of lymph node metastasis did not differ significantly between dogs with OMM (10/27 [37%]) and dogs with OSCC (6/21 [29%]). Distant metastasis was identified in 11 (41%) dogs with OMM and was suspected in 1 dog with OSCC. The MRLN was affected in 13 of 16 dogs with lymph node metastasis, and 3 of those dogs had metastasis to the MRLN without concurrent metastasis to an MLN. Metastasis was identified in lymph nodes contralateral to the primary tumor in 4 of 17 dogs that underwent contralateral lymph node removal.


Results indicated histologic evaluation of only 1 MLN was insufficient to definitively rule out lymph node metastasis in dogs with OMM or OSCC; therefore, bilateral lymphadenectomy of the MLN and MRLN lymphocentra is recommended for such dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association