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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To characterize the signalment, clinical signs, biological behavior, and response to treatment of carcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—113 dogs with histologically confirmed carcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac.

Procedure—Data on signalment, clinical signs, and staging were reviewed and analyzed along with treatment modality for potential association with survival time.

Results—Sex distribution was approximately equal (54% female, 46% male). One hundred four dogs underwent treatment consisting of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or multimodal treatment. Median survival for treated dogs was 544 days (range, 0 to 1,873 days). Dogs treated with chemotherapy alone had significantly shorter survival (median, 212 days) than those receiving other treatments (median, 584 days). Dogs not treated with surgery had significantly shorter survival (median, 402 days) than those that underwent surgery as part of their treatment (median, 548 days). Dogs with tumors ≥ 10 cm2 had significantly shorter survival (median, 292 days) than dogs with tumors ≥ 10 cm2 (median, 584 days). Hypercalcemia was identified in 27% (n = 29) of dogs, and those dogs had significantly shorter survival (median, 256 days), compared with those that were normocalcemic (median, 584 days). Dogs with pulmonary metastasis had significantly shorter survival (median, 219 days) than dogs without evidence of pulmonary metastasis (median, 548 days).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Unlike most previous reports, this study revealed an approximately equal sex distribution, and results suggest a more favorable prognosis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223: 825–831)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To test the hypothesis that feedlot cattle with acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) have bacterial infection of the lung or liver and concurrent bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection significantly more often than pen mates without AIP.

Animals—39 feedlot cattle with signs consistent with AIP and no history of treatment with antimicrobials and 32 healthy control cattle from the same pens.

Procedure—Lung and liver specimens were obtained postmortem for bacterial or mycoplasmal culture and histologic examination; lung tissue was assessed for BRSV infection immunohistochemically.

Results—Among affected cattle, 26 had AIP confirmed histologically. Lung tissue from 11 cattle with AIP yielded microbial respiratory tract pathogens on culture; tissues from control animals yielded no microbial growth. In 4 cattle with AIP and 2 control animals, liver abscesses were detected; bacteria were isolated from abscessed tissue in 3 and 1 of those animals, respectively. Immunohistochemically, 9 cattle with AIP and no control animals were BRSV-positive. Histologically, 9 AIP-affected cattle had only acute alveolar damage with exudation, and the other 17 had acute exudation with type II pneumocyte hyperplasia. No lesions of AIP were detected in control animals. Only 4 AIP-affected cattle had bacterial infection of the lung with concurrent BRSV infection.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that microbial respiratory tract pathogens are more common in cattle with AIP than in healthy pen mates. Control of bacterial pneumonia late in the feeding period may reduce the incidence of AIP at feedlots where AIP is a problem. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1525–1532)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research