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Abstract

Objective—To provide a quantitative description of the architecture of superficial digital flexor (SDF) and deep digital flexor (DDF) muscles in adult horses to predict muscle-tendon behavior and estimate muscle forces.

Sample Population—7 forelimb specimens from 7 adult Thoroughbreds.

Procedure—Muscle and tendon lengths and volumes were measured from 6 fixed forelimbs. After processing, fiber bundle and sarcomere lengths were measured. Optimal fascicle lengths and muscle length-to-fascicle length, muscle length-to-free tendon length, and fascicle length-to-tendon length ratios were calculated, as were tendon and muscle physiologic cross-sectional areas (PCSAs). Pennation angles were measured in 1 embalmed specimen.

Results—The SDF optimal fascicle lengths were uniformly short (mean ± SD, 0.8 ± 0.1 cm), whereas DDF lengths ranged from 0.9 ± 0.2 cm to 10.8 ± 1.6 cm. The DDF humeral head had 3 architectural subunits, each receiving a separate median nerve branch, suggestive of neuromuscular compartmentalization. Pennation angles were small (10o to 25o). The PCSAs of the SDF and DDF muscle were 234 ± 51 cm2 and 259 ± 30 cm2, with estimated forces of 4,982 ± 1148 N and 5,520 ± 544 N, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The SDF muscle appears to provide strong tendinous support with little muscle fascicular shortening and fatigueresistance properties. The DDF muscle combines passive and dynamic functions with larger tension development and higher shortening velocities during digital motion. Architectural parameters are useful for estimation of forces and have implications for analysis of muscle-tendon function, surgical procedures involving muscle-tendon lengthening, and biomechanical modeling. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:819–828)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of athletic conditioning on thyroid hormone concentrations in a population of healthy sled dogs.

Animals—19 healthy adult sled dogs.

Procedure—Serum concentrations of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free T4 (fT4), free T3 (fT3), and autoantibodies directed against T3, T4, and thyroglobulin were measured in sled dogs that were not in training (ie, nonracing season) and again after dogs had been training at maximum athletic potential for 4 months.

Results—Analysis revealed significant decreases in T4 and fT4 concentrations and a significant increase in TSH concentration for dogs in the peak training state, compared with concentrations for dogs in the untrained state. Serum concentrations of T4 and fT4 were less than established reference ranges during the peak training state for 11 of 19 and 8 of 19 dogs, respectively; fT4 concentration was greater than the established reference range in 9 of 19 dogs in the untrained state.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Decreased total T4 and fT4 concentrations and increased serum concentrations of TSH were consistently measured during the peak training state in healthy sled dogs, compared with concentrations determined during the untrained state. Although thyroid hormone concentrations remained within the established reference ranges in many of the dogs, values that were outside the reference range in some dogs could potentially lead to an incorrect assessment of thyroid status. Endurance training has a profound impact on the thyroid hormone concentrations of competitive sled dogs. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:333–337)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify characteristics of exercise-induced collapse in Labrador Retrievers and compare characteristics for dogs with various dynamin 1 gene (DNM1) mutation statuses.

Design—Retrospective cross-sectional study.

Animals—109 Labrador Retrievers with a history of recurrent exercise-induced collapse, clinically normal behavior and gait between episodes, and no reason for collapse identified via medical evaluation.

Procedures—Data were collected via surveys from owners of dogs that were tested for an autosomal recessive DNM1 mutation causing DNM1-associated exercise-induced collapse (d-EIC). Dogs were identified as having d-EIC (homozygous for the mutation) or not having d-EIC (heterozygous for or without the mutation). Survey data were reviewed by an investigator unaware of the genotypes of dogs, and collapse characteristics were compared between groups.

Results—74 dogs had d-EIC; 35 dogs did not have d-EIC. Dogs with d-EIC were young (median age, 12 months) at the time of the first collapse episode; collapse in such dogs typically originated in the hind limbs and was characterized by low muscle tone, clinically normal mentation, and rapid recovery. Dogs without d-EIC were older (median age, 23 months) than dogs with d-EIC; such dogs had various characteristics of collapse that were not consistent with a single disease.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Characteristics of exercised-induced collapse in Labrador Retrievers with various DNM1 genotypes were identified in this study; findings may help distinguish dogs with d-EIC from those with other types of collapse conditions. Characteristics of collapse in Labrador Retrievers that were not homozygous for the DNM1 mutation differed substantially among dogs and may have been attributable to multiple causes.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare blood glucose (BG) concentrations measured with a portable blood glucose meter in blood samples obtained with a marginal ear vein (MEV) nick technique, from a peripheral venous catheter, and by direct venipuncture in healthy cats and cats with diabetes mellitus.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—10 healthy cats and 11 cats with diabetes mellitus.

Procedure—On day 1, blood samples were collected every hour for 10 hours by the MEV nick technique and from a peripheral venous catheter. On day 2, blood samples were collected every hour for 10 hours by the MEV nick technique and by direct venipuncture of the medial saphenous vein.

Results—For all cats, mean BG concentration for samples collected by the MEV nick technique was not significantly different from mean concentration for samples obtained from the peripheral venous catheter. For healthy cats, mean BG concentration for samples collected by the MEV nick technique was not significantly different from mean concentration for samples obtained by direct venipuncture. For cats with diabetes mellitus, mean BG concentration for samples collected by the MEV nick technique was significantly different from mean concentration for samples obtained by direct venipuncture; however, for the range of concentrations examined, this difference was not clinically important.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that for the range of concentrations examined, the MEV nick technique is a reasonable alternative to venous blood collection for serial measurement of BG concentrations in cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002; 221:389–392)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To develop a method to reliably induce congenital hypothyroidism in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and assess similarities between the resultant developmental abnormalities and those described in horses with congenital hypothyroidism.

Animals—35 female guinea pigs and their offspring.

Procedure—Guinea pigs were allocated to control groups or groups treated with a low-iodine diet before and throughout gestation; an SC injection of 100 or 200 µCi of radioactive iodine 131 (131I) on day 40 of gestation; or 0.1% propylthiouracil (PTU) continuously in the drinking water, beginning day 3 or 40 of gestation. In all groups, assessments included gestation duration, litter size, proportion of stillborn pups, and laboratory analyses in live pups and dams; postmortem examinations were performed on all pups and dams and selected tissues were examined histologically.

Results—Compared with control animals, pups from dams receiving a low-iodine diet or 131I SC had mild changes in their thyroid glands but no grossly or radiographically detectable lesions of hypothyroidism. Pups from dams receiving PTU were often stillborn (24/27 pups) and had enlarged thyroid glands (characterized by large, variably sized follicles of tall columnar epithelium and little or no colloid), an incomplete coat, and radiographically detectable skeletal dysgenesis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Many of the lesions detected in guinea pig pups from the experimentally treated dams were similar to those described in foals with congenital hypothyroidism. Experimental induction of congenital hypothyroidism in guinea pigs may be useful for the study of naturally occurring congenital hypothyroidism in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1251–1258)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare in vitro mechanical properties of toggle pins and toggle rods used as suture anchors and of 3 suture materials (50-lb monofilament polybutester, No. 5 braided polyester, and 5-mm woven polyester) commonly used as prosthetic ligaments in the repair of hip joint luxation in dogs.

Sample Population—Femoropelvic specimens from the cadavers of 18 dogs.

Procedure—Suture anchors were compared by use of pullout tests. Suture materials were compared by use of monotonic and cyclic tensile tests; cyclic tensile tests were performed with the suture placed over the edge of an aluminum bar to simulate the edge of the femoral bone tunnel. In vitro mechanical properties of the ligament of the femoral head were determined by use of monotonic tensile tests, using boneligament-bone cadaveric specimens. The in vitro mechanical properties of the acetabulum-ligamentfemur complex and of this complex following rupture of the ligament and stabilization with a toggle rod and 5-mm woven polyester were determined by use of compression tests that simulated weight-bearing.

Results—Mechanical properties of the toggle rod were not significantly different from those of the toggle pin. Woven polyester had the longest fatigue life in cyclic testing. Hip joints stabilized with a toggle rod and woven polyester had less than half the strength in vitro of intact joints.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that a toggle rod or toggle pin can be used for stabilization of hip joint luxations in dogs. Of the materials tested, braided polyester had the best in vitro mechanical properties. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62: 721–728)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine tracheal mucociliary clearance rate (TMCCR) by use of a standard protocol in healthy anesthetized cats and to determine the effect of theophylline on TMCCR in healthy anesthetized cats.

Animals—6 healthy cats.

Procedure—Cats were anesthetized with propofol, and a droplet of the radiopharmaceutical technetium Tc 99m macroaggregated albumin was placed endoscopically at the carina. Dynamic acquisition scintigraphic imaging was performed, using the larynx as the end point. The TMCCR was determined by measuring the distance the droplet traveled by frame rate. Each cat was imaged 6 times as follows: 3 times following placebo administration and 3 times following the administration of sustained release theophylline (25 mg/kg, PO). Serum theophylline concentrations were assessed during imaging to ensure therapeutic concentrations.

Results—The TMCCR in healthy adult cats anesthetized with propofol was 22.2 ± 2.8 mm/min. Tracheal mucociliary clearance rate in cats receiving theophylline was 21.8 ± 3.5 mm/min. Theophylline administration did not significantly alter TMCCR.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Theophylline has been shown to increase TMCCR in humans and dogs. In our study, we determined TMCCR in healthy anesthetized cats and found that it was not accelerated by the administration of theophylline. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1320–1322)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research