Objective—To determine the ideal interval to image acquisition after IV injection of sodium fluoride F 18 (18F-NaF) and evaluate biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical in clinically normal skeletally immature dogs.
Animals—4 female dogs.
Procedures—Each dog was anesthetized for evaluation with a commercial hybrid positron emission tomography (PET)–CT instrument. A low–radiation dose, whole-body CT scan was acquired first. An IV injection of 18F-NaF (0.14 mCi/kg) was administered, and a dynamic PET scan centered over the heart and liver was acquired during a period of 120 minutes. Uptake of 18F-NaF in the blood pool, soft tissues, and skeletal structures was evaluated via region of interest analysis to derive standardized uptake values and time-activity curves, which were used to determine the optimal postinjection time for skeletal image acquisition. Biodistribution was also assessed from a final whole-body PET-CT scan acquired after the dynamic scan.
Results—Time-activity curves revealed a rapid decrease in the amount of radiopharmaceutical in the blood pool and soft tissues and a rapid increase in the amount of radiopharmaceutical in bones soon after injection. At 50 minutes after injection, the greatest difference in uptake between soft tissues and bones was detected, with continued subtle increase in uptake in the bones. Uptake of 18F-NaF was slightly increased at growth plates and open ossification centers, compared with that at other parts of the bone.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—At 50 minutes after IV injection of 18F-NaF at the dose evaluated, PET-CT yielded excellent bone-to-background ratio images for evaluation of the skeletal system in dogs.
Objective—To evaluate interobserver agreement and diagnostic accuracy of brain MRI in dogs.
Procedures—5 board-certified veterinary radiologists with variable MRI experience interpreted transverse T2-weighted (T2w), T2w fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), and T1-weighted-FLAIR; transverse, sagittal, and dorsal T2w; and T1-weighted-FLAIR postcontrast brain sequences (1.5 T). Several imaging parameters were scored, including the following: lesion (present or absent), lesion characteristics (axial localization, mass effect, edema, hemorrhage, and cavitation), contrast enhancement characteristics, and most likely diagnosis (normal, neoplastic, inflammatory, vascular, metabolic or toxic, or other). Magnetic resonance imaging diagnoses were determined initially without patient information and then repeated, providing history and signalment. For all cases and readers, MRI diagnoses were compared with final diagnoses established with results from histologic examination (when available) or with other pertinent clinical data (CSF analysis, clinical response to treatment, or MRI follow-up). Magnetic resonance scores were compared between examiners with κ statistics.
Results—Reading agreement was substantial to almost perfect (0.64 < κ < 0.86) when identifying a brain lesion on MRI; fair to moderate (0.14 < κ < 0.60) when interpreting hemorrhage, edema, and pattern of contrast enhancement; fair to substantial (0.22 < κ < 0.74) for dural tail sign and categorization of margins of enhancement; and moderate to substantial (0.40 < κ < 0.78) for axial localization, presence of mass effect, cavitation, intensity, and distribution of enhancement. Interobserver agreement was moderate to substantial for categories of diagnosis (0.56 < κ < 0.69), and agreement with the final diagnosis was substantial regardless of whether patient information was (0.65 < κ < 0.76) or was not (0.65 < κ < 0.68) provided.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The present study found that whereas some MRI features such as edema and hemorrhage were interpreted less consistently, radiologists were reasonably constant and accurate when providing diagnoses.