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OBJECTIVE To determine the anatomic location and clinical signs of thymoma in goats and long-term outcomes in a subset of goats treated by tumor excision.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 13 goats with a histologic diagnosis of thymoma at the Cornell University Hospital for Animals between 1990 and 2014.

PROCEDURES Medical records of goats with thymoma were reviewed and data were evaluated regarding signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic imaging results, thymoma size, treatment, and outcome. Follow-up information was obtained via contact with the owners and review of medical records.

RESULTS 8 goats had a mediastinal mass, 4 had a palpable ventral cervical mass, and 1 had both types of masses. Median age at the time of diagnosis was 9.5 years (range, 3 to 12 years). Goats with a mediastinal mass had respiratory distress or marked tachypnea. Six goats were treated surgically, including all 5 with a ventral cervical mass. All 5 goats with a ventral cervical mass survived with no tumor recurrence for ≥ 1 year after excision. Only 2 goats with a mediastinal mass survived to hospital discharge.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that the prognosis for goats following excision of ventral cervical thymomas was favorable, whereas goats with mediastinal thymomas appeared more likely to have severe clinical signs and a guarded prognosis.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Urolithiasis is the most common cause of urinary tract disease in small ruminants and has significant economic and production impacts worldwide. Urolithiasis is multifactorial in origin and generally begins with the formation of cystoliths followed by urethral obstruction. The condition is most common in males. Clinical signs are variable depending on the severity of the obstruction. Uroliths can be calcium, struvite, or silicate based; however, struvite and amorphous magnesium calcium phosphate are the most common urolith types observed in small ruminants. Although urethral process (vermiform appendage) amputation is widely considered the first line of treatment, reobstruction is common within the first 36 hours. Surgical interventions such as temporary tube cystostomy, perineal urethrostomy (PU), modified proximal perineal urethrostomy, vesico-preputial anastomosis (VPA), and urinary bladder marsupialization (BM) are reported to carry an improved prognosis for long-term survival. PU carries a lower proportion of long-term success (> 12-month survival time) when compared with VPA and BM. Stoma stricture and urine scald are the most commonly observed surgical complications. Currently, the literature provides minimal direction for clinician decision-making in managing these cases while accounting for patient history, client financial ability, composition of calculi, and potential treatment complications. Small ruminant urinary obstructions are challenging and complicated conditions to treat, due to their multifactorial etiology, ruminant urogenital anatomy, and the variety of imperfect treatment options available. The purpose of this article this article is to provide veterinary practitioners with decision trees to guide management and treatment of urolithiasis in small ruminants.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To examine patterns of collaborative research behavior by gender among veterinary academic faculty to determine whether differences exist in how men and women access resources as a contributing factor to the advancement gap.


710 faculty from 23 veterinary medical colleges.


An online questionnaire was sent through listservs at participating institutions and data were collected anonymously. Responses related to professional demographics, resources, collaboration, and elements of environmental culture were analyzed to identify associations among variables. Proportional odds logistic regression was utilized to examine the effect of gender on academic rank.


Male and female faculty reported participating in collaborations at equal rates. Men were more likely to engage in research collaborations with other men. These collaborations were more common than collaborations between women or between women and men. Men had 47% higher odds of more advanced academic rank compared with women and controlling for relevant factors. While there was no difference in the value of startup packages listed by men and women, women were more likely to report gender as a disadvantage in accessing resources and opportunities.


Research productivity is a main factor driving academic promotion. To improve gender equity in career advancement and to support scholarship among all faculty, the creation of institutional development programs focused on facilitating collaborations and resource sharing may be a strategic area for veterinary academic leaders to consider.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To identify hemostatic imbalances indicative of an increased risk of intra-abdominal adhesion formation in foals versus adult horses.

Animals—Horses with colic undergoing exploratory laparotomy or abdominocentesis as part of a clinical examination (n = 16 foals ≤ 6 months of age and 19 adults ≥ 5 years of age) and horses without colic undergoing herniorrhaphy (15 foals) or euthanasia for noninflammatory and nongastrointestinal disease (10 foals and 20 adults).

Procedures—Paired abdominal fluid and blood samples were collected from each horse into buffered sodium citrate and centrifuged immediately after collection. Supernatants were stored at −80°C, then thawed for measurement of fibrinogen concentration, plasminogen activity, antiplasmin activity, and D-dimer concentration. Supernatant analyte concentrations or activities were compared within age group (foals with and without colic vs adults with and without colic) and within disease status (foals and adults without colic vs foals and adults with colic).

Results—All analyte concentrations or activities in abdominal fluid samples were significantly lower in the noncolic groups than in the colic groups, and none differed between foal and adult groups. Several plasma analyte values differed by disease status and age.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The risk of intra-abdominal adhesion formation in the foals in this study did not appear to be attributable to differences in intra-abdominal hemostasis between adult horses and foals. Strategies for initial medical and surgical management of colic in adult horses may be applicable to foals with similar disorders.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


To determine whether keratan sulfate concentrations in plasma or synovial fluid from clinically normal horses were different from concentrations in horses with joint disease and whether concentrations varied with type of joint disease.


Case-control study.


67 clinically normal horses, 10 clinically normal foals, and 160 horses with joint disease.


ELISA was used to measure keratan sulfate concentrations.


Mean plasma keratan sulfate concentration (mean ± SEM, 580 ± 124 ng/ml) in foals peaked at 10 weeks of age. Mean plasma keratan sulfate concentration in clinically normal horses was 200 ng/ml (95% confidence interval, 157 to 251 ng/ml). Horses with osteochondral (chip) fractures, other closed intraarticular fractures, inflammatory arthritis (synovitis), infectious arthritis, or osteochondrosis had significantly higher plasma keratan sulfate concentrations than did clinically normal horses, but horses with osteoarthritis did not.

Breed, gender, and type of joint disease affected keratan sulfate concentration in synovial fluid. Standardbreds with chip fractures of the metacarpophalangeal/ metatarsophalangeal joints had significantly higher keratan sulfate concentrations in synovial fluid than did Thoroughbreds. Keratan sulfate concentrations in synovial fluid from osteoarthritic carpal joints were lower than concentrations in normal carpal joints and tarsocrural joints with inflammatory joint disease.

Clinical Implications

Keratan sulfate concentration alone was not a specific marker of joint disease but was affected by various joint diseases. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:369–374

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Fourteen cows were subjected to thoracotomy as an aid in the treatment of either septic pericarditis (n = 7) or unilateral pleuritis (fibrous or purulent; n = 7). Thoracic lesions were primary in 4 cows, secondary to traumatic reticuloperitonitis in 9 cows, and secondary to extension of a liver abscess in 1 cow. Thoracotomy was performed on 9 cows under local anesthesia. Surgery was performed on 5 cows under general anesthesia; 2 died during anesthesia, and 2 others were euthanatized. Of the 10 cows allowed to recover from surgery, 4 had pericarditis and 6 had pleuritis. Four cows with pleuritis had thoracic abscesses. All but 1 cow with pericarditis died or were euthanatized, and 5 of the 6 cows with pleuritis were discharged from the hospital. A year after surgery, 1 cow was culled because of infertility, and the other 5 cows were returned to production.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To investigate the efficacy and safety of a low-volume, single-catheter, continuous peripheral neural blockade (CPNB) technique to locally deliver bupivacaine to alleviate signs of severe forelimb pain resulting from experimentally induced tendonitis in horses.

Design—Randomized controlled experimental trial.

Sample—14 horses and 5 forelimbs from equine cadavers.

Procedures—Horses underwent collagenase-induced superficial digital flexor tendonitis in the midmetacarpal region of 1 forelimb. To deliver analgesia, a closed-tip catheter was placed from lateral to medial, approximately 12 cm distal to the accessory carpal bone, between the suspensory ligament and accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon. Success of catheter placement and anesthetic delivery was documented ex vivo in 5 forelimbs from equine cadavers. Effective analgesia in affected forelimbs of horses from continuous (n = 7) versus intermittent (7) local anesthetic delivery (intermittent peripheral neural blockade; IPNB) was compared over a 3-day period.

Results—Horses that received CPNB in the affected forelimb were less lame than horses that received IPNB. A lower proportion of CPNB-treated horses had behavioral and physiologic signs of pain, compared with IPNB-treated horses. Neither technique completely blocked the sensation of pain or resulted in swelling in the distal portion of the forelimb, vasodilation, or an increase in lameness. After removal, Staphylococcus aureus was cultured from 1 catheter tip.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—For short-term treatment, CPNB was more effective than IPNB for reduction in signs of severe pain in the distal aspect of the forelimb of horses.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate the platelet activation response before and after treatment with clopidogrel in horses.

Animals—12 healthy adult mares.

Procedures—In a masked study, horses (6/group) were randomly allocated to alternately receive placebo or clopidogrel via nasogastric tube at a loading dose of 4 mg/kg followed by 2 mg/kg every 24 hours. Blood samples were collected before and 72 hours after initiation of treatment for ADP- and collagen-induced light transmission aggregometry; determination of closure time in collagen-ADP cartridges; modified thrombelastography for comparison of maximal amplitudes generated by kaolin, reptilase, and reptilase plus ADP activation; and flow cytometric tests to detect platelet fibrinogen binding, P-selectin expression, and phosphatidylserine externalization before and after ex vivo stimulation with thrombin, convulxin, thrombin with convulxin, and calcium ionophore.

Results—Clopidogrel administration induced a significant decrease in mean aggregation response to 5μM and 10μM ADP stimulation; however, 2 horses had resistance to clopidogrel's inhibitory action. Significant differences after clopidogrel treatment were not found in any other tests of platelet function.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Assays using commercially available reagents were configured to measure different variables of the platelet activation response; however, clopidogrel's platelet inhibitory action was only detected by ADP-induced light transmission aggregometry. Results also suggested that horses, like humans, have interindividual variability in response to clopidogrel that may influence the drug's clinical efficacy as an antiplatelet agent.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To describe clinical signs and treatment outcomes for juvenile alpacas with spiral colon impaction (SCI).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—12 juvenile (< 6 months old) camelids with SCI.

Procedures—Crias with SCI were identified by searching the medical records database of the Cornell University Equine and Farm Animal Hospital. A keyword-based search method was used. Inclusion required confirmation of SCI on the basis of surgical or necropsy findings. History, signalment, examination findings, diagnostic test results, medical treatments, and surgical reports as well as short- and long-term outcomes were reviewed. Peritoneal fluid parameters were compared with those of age-matched comparison crias in which SCI was suspected but ruled out at necropsy or exploratory celiotomy.

Results—12 crias with confirmed SCI were identified. Common clinical signs included lethargy and diarrhea. Abdominal distention was observed in 9 crias. In 3 crias, a mass in the region of the spiral colon was palpated. Seven crias underwent peritoneal fluid analysis; compared with age-matched comparison crias, SCI-affected crias had higher peritoneal fluid nucleated cell counts and nucleated cell count-to-total protein concentration ratios. A ventral midline celiotomy was performed in 9 crias; 7 underwent an enterotomy, and 2 underwent transmural infusion of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution with manual breakdown of ingesta; 3 of these crias survived for at least 6 months.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Crias with SCI that were not resolved by medical management had a poor prognosis. During celiotomy, transmural infusion of saline solution with manual breakdown of ingesta provided a less invasive alternative to enterotomy.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association