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Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of a tongue-tie on upper airway mechanics in clinically normal horses exercising on a treadmill following sternothyrohyoid myectomy.

Animals—6 Standardbreds.

Procedure—Upper airway mechanics were measured with horses exercising on a treadmill at 5, 8, and 10 m/s 4 weeks after a sternothyrohyoid myectomy was performed. Pharyngeal and tracheal inspiratory and expiratory pressures were measured by use of transnasal pharyngeal and tracheal catheters connected to differential pressure transducers. Horses were fitted with a facemask and airflow was measured by use of a pneumotachograph. Horses underwent a standardized exercise protocol on a treadmill at 5, 8, and 10 m/s with and without a tongue-tie in a randomized cross-over design. Inspiratory and expiratory airflow, tracheal pressure, and pharyngeal pressure were measured, and inspiratory and expiratory resistances were calculated.

Results—We were unable to detect an effect of a tongue-tie on any of the respiratory variables measured.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that a tongue-tie does not alter upper airway mechanics following sternothyrohyoid myectomy in clinically normal horses during exercise. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:779–782)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of manual tongue protrusion on the dimensions of the hyoid apparatus, nasopharynx, and oropharynx in anesthetized horses.

Animals—5 adult horses.

Procedure—Horses were anesthetized and positioned in sternal recumbency for 2 sequential computed tomographic (CT) scans. Images were acquired with the tongue in a natural position inside the mouth. Then, the tongue was pulled rostrally and secured, and a second CT scan was performed. Dorsoventral length of the hyoid apparatus and angles of the basisphenoid, basihyoid, and ceratohyoid were measured on 3-dimensional reconstructed CT images. Cross-sectional diameters and areas of the nasopharynx and oropharynx were determined on reformatted images in the transverse and longitudinal planes, using osseous landmarks for consistency. Results were tested between the 2 groups to determine significant differences.

Results—We were unable to detect a significant difference between any of the lengths or angles of the hyoid apparatus measured with or without rostral protrusion of the tongue. Similarly, nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal diameters and cross-sectional areas were not significantly different with or without rostral protrusion of the tongue.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tying the tongue rostrally out of a horse's mouth did not influence the position of the hyoid apparatus or dimensions of the nasopharynx or oropharynx in anesthetized horses. Currently, no data suggest that application of a tongue-tie is effective for maintaining stability and patency of the nasopharyngeal or orolaryngeal airways in horses during races. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1865–1869)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether the hyoepiglotticus muscle has respiratory-related electromyographic activity and whether electrical stimulation of this muscle changes the position and conformation of the epiglottis, thereby altering dimensions of the aditus laryngis.

Animals—6 Standardbred horses.

Procedure—Horses were anesthetized, and a bipolar fine-wire electrode was placed in the hyoepiglotticus muscle of each horse. Endoscopic images of the nasopharynx and larynx were recorded during electrical stimulation of the hyoepiglotticus muscle in standing, unsedated horses. Dorsoventral length and area of the aditus laryngis were measured on images obtained before and during electrical stimulation. Electromyographic activity of the hyoepiglotticus muscle and nasopharyngeal pressures were measured while horses exercised on a treadmill at 50, 75, 90, and 100% of the speed that produced maximum heart rate.

Results—Electrical stimulation of the hyoepiglotticus muscle changed the shape of the epiglottis, displaced it ventrally, and significantly increased the dorsoventral length and area of the aditus laryngis. The hyoepiglotticus muscle had inspiratory activity that increased significantly with treadmill speed as a result of an increase in phasic and tonic activity. Expiratory activity of the hyoepiglotticus muscle did not change with treadmill speed in 4 of 6 horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings reported here suggest that contraction of the hyoepiglotticus muscle increases dimensions of the airway in horses by depressing the epiglottis ventrally during intense breathing efforts. The hyoepiglotticus muscle may be an important muscle for dilating the airway in horses, and contraction of the hyoepiglotticus muscle may induce conformational changes in the epiglottis. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1617–1621)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of a commercially available nasal strip on airway mechanics in exercising horses.

Animals—6 horses (5 Standardbreds and 1 Thoroughbred).

Procedure—Horses exercised on a treadmill at speeds corresponding to 100 and 120% of maximal heart rate with and without application of a commercially available nasal strip. Concurrently, tracheal pressures, airflow, and heart rate were measured. Peak inspiratory and expiratory tracheal pressures, airflow, respiratory frequency, and tidal volume were recorded. Inspiratory and expiratory airway resistances were calculated by dividing peak pressures by peak flows. Endoscopic examination of the narrowest point of the nasal cavity (ie, nasal valve) was performed in 1 resting horse before, during, and after application of a nasal strip.

Results—During exercise on a treadmill, peak tracheal inspiratory pressure and inspiratory airway resistance were significantly less when nasal strips were applied to horses exercising at speeds corresponding to 100 and 120% of maximal heart rate. Application of the nasal strip pulled the dorsal conchal fold laterally, expanding the dorsal meatus.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The commercially available nasal strip tented the skin over the nasal valve and dilated that section of the nasal passage, resulting in decreased airway resistance during inspiration. The nasal strip probably decreases the amount of work required for respiratory muscles in horses during intense exercise and may reduce the energy required for breathing in these horses. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1101–1105)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of a tongue-tie on upper airway mechanics in exercising horses.

Animals—5 Standardbreds.

Procedure—Peak inspiratory and expiratory tracheal and pharyngeal pressures and airflow were measured while horses exercised on a treadmill with and without a tongue-tie. Respiratory rate was also measured. Horses ran at speeds that corresponded to 50 (HR50), 75, 90 (HR90), and 100% of maximal heart rate. The tongue-tie was applied by pulling the tongue forward out of the mouth as far as possible and tying it at the level of the base of the frenulum to the mandible with an elastic gauze bandage. Peak inspiratory and expiratory tracheal, pharyngeal, and translaryngeal resistance, minute ventilation, and tidal volume were calculated. Data were analyzed by use of 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA. For post hoc comparison of significant data, the Student-Newman- Keuls test was used.

Results—We were unable to detect significant differences between groups for peak inspiratory or expiratory tracheal or pharyngeal resistance, peak pressure, peak expiratory flow, tidal volume, respiratory rate, or minute ventilation. Horses that ran with a tongue-tie had significantly higher peak inspiratory flows, compared with horses that ran without a tongue-tie. In the post hoc comparison, this effect was significant at 4 m/s, HR50, and HR90.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Application of a tongue-tie did not alter upper respiratory mechanics in exercising horses and may be beneficial in exercising horses with certain types of obstructive dysfunction of the upper airways. However, application of a tongue-tie does not improve upper airway mechanics in clinically normal horses. (Am J Vet Res 2001; 62:775-778)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of desensitization of the laryngeal mucosal mechanoreceptors on upper airway mechanics in exercising horses.

Animals—6 Standardbreds.

Procedure—In study 1, videoendoscopic examinations were performed while horses ran on a treadmill with and without topical anesthesia of the laryngeal mucosa. In study 2, peak tracheal and nasopharyngeal pressures and airflows were obtained from horses during incremental treadmill exercise tests, with and without topical anesthesia of the laryngeal mucosa. A nasal occlusion test was performed on each horse while standing during an endoscopic examination for both trials.

Results—In study 1, horses had nasopharyngeal collapse while running on the treadmill when the laryngeal mucosa was anesthetized. In study 2, inspiratory upper airway and nasopharyngeal impedance were significantly higher, and peak tracheal inspiratory pressure, respiratory frequency, and minute ventilation were significantly lower in horses when the laryngeal mucosa was anesthetized, compared with values obtained when horses exercised without topical anesthesia. Peak inspiratory and expiratory airflows were lower in horses when the laryngeal mucosa was anesthetized, although differences did not quite reach significance (P = 0.06 and 0.09, respectively). During a nasal occlusion test, horses had episodes of nasopharyngeal collapse and dorsal displacement of the soft palate when the laryngeal mucosa was anesthetized. Upper airway function was normal in these horses without laryngeal mucosal anesthesia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Receptors within the laryngeal mucosa may be important in maintaining upper airway patency in exercising horses. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1706–1710)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To record respiratory sounds in exercising horses and determine whether spectrum analysis could be use to identify sounds specific for laryngeal hemiplegia (LH) and dorsal displacement of the soft palate (DDSP).

Animals—5 Standardbred horses.

Procedure—Respiratory sounds were recorded and pharyngeal pressure and stride frequency were measured while horses exercised at speeds corresponding to maximum heart rate, before and after induction of LH and DDSP.

Results—When airway function was normal, expiratory sounds predominated and lasted throughout exhalation. After induction of LH, expiratory sounds were unaffected; however, all horses produced inspiratory sounds characterized by 3 frequency bands centered at approximately 0.3, 1.6, and 3.8 kHz. After induction of DDSP, inspiratory sounds were unaffected, but a broad-frequency expiratory sound, characterized by rapid periodicity (rattling) was heard throughout expiration. This sound was not consistently detected in all horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The technique used to record respiratory sounds was well tolerated by the horses, easy, and inexpensive. Spectrum analysis of respiratory sounds from exercising horses after experimental induction of LH or DDSP revealed unique sound patterns. If other conditions causing airway obstruction are also associated with unique sound patterns, spectrum analysis of respiratory sounds may prove to be useful in the diagnosis of airway abnormalities in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:659–664)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association