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  • Author or Editor: Susan E. Seitz x
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Microscopic evaluation of the margins of excised cutaneous neoplasms is of paramount importance for determining that neoplastic tissue does not extend to the excision borders. Dyes or pigments that indelibly mark the tissue should be more reliable than sectioning techniques or suture markers for identifying the surgical margins before and after tissue processing. We evaluated 5 pigments to select a material that could be rapidly applied by surgeons, and readily identified on histologic section by the pathologists.

Twenty normal canine skin specimens were assigned to each of 5 groups. Each group was treated with artists’ pigments in acetone, India ink in acetone, alcian blue, typists’ correction fluid, or a commercially available marking kit. Ten specimens within each group were marked before formalin fixation, and 10 were marked after fixation. Application properties, fixation and processing properties, and microscopic characteristics were evaluated for each material.

Application properties were acceptable for all marking materials on unfixed specimens, and for alcian blue, India ink in acetone, and correction fluid on fixed specimens. Fixation and processing properties were acceptable for all materials except correction fluid. All marking materials survived fixation and processing, and colors were readily visualized under the microscope. Microscopic characteristics were acceptable for alcian blue, India ink in acetone, and the commercial kit.

Overall, alcian blue was the best marking material, with India ink in acetone and the commercial kit also acceptable. Correction fluid and artist’ pigments in acetone were not acceptable because pigment fragmentation and incomplete tissue coverage hindered microscopic evaluation of resection margins.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


To describe a technique for closed reduction of and application of a type-II external fixator to comminuted fractures of the radius and tibia in dogs and to evaluate outcome of the technique in a series of client-owned dogs.


Retrospective case series.


23 dogs that underwent closed reduction of severely comminuted (≥ 5 fragments); mid-diaphyseal radial (n = 9); and tibial (n = 14) fractures and stabilization with a type-II external fixator.


Radiographs were made postoperatively and every 4 to 6 weeks until the fixator was removed. The effect of type of fracture (open vs closed), type of pins (threaded vs smooth), and number of fixation pins on surgery time, time between surgery and development of bridging callus, and time between surgery and removal of the fixator was evaluated using one-sided Student's t-tests.


21 fractures healed after a single surgery. Two dogs with radial fractures required a second procedure because of complications. All fractures healed with the original fixation device in place. Mean time between surgery and the development of bridging callus was 11.4 weeks (range, 4 to 22 weeks), and mean time between surgery and fixator removal was 14.7 weeks (range, 4 to 27 weeks). Type of fracture, type of pins, and number of fixation pins did not have a significant effect on surgery time, time to development of bridging callus, or time to fixator removal.

Clinical Implications

Closed reduction and application of a type-II external fixator was an effective method of treating severely comminuted radial and tibial fractures. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:1445–1448)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association