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  • Author or Editor: Susan E. Lance x
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Summary:

A stratified random sample of 50 Ohio dairy herds, monitored for 1 year between March 1988 and May 1989, was used to estimate the component costs of clinical mastitis per cow-year overall and by organism, the component costs of an episode of clinical mastitis overall and by organism, and the incidence of clinical mastitis by organism. Each herd was visited monthly by a veterinarian who conducted on-farm interviews and completed standardized data-collection forms designed to elicit economic information about the on-farm costs of clinical mastitis and mastitis prevention. Producers collected milk samples prior to treatment of clinical mastitis cases. Culturing methods allowed identification of 18 specific mastitis pathogen classifications. Annual costs estimated were on a per cow-year and clinical episode basis. The monthly mean population of cows monitored was 4,068. Mastitis prevention cost $14.50/cow-year, whereas the cost incurred by producers because of clinical cases of mastitis was $37.91. Organisms prevalent in the cows’ environment caused the most costly types of mastitis. Disregarding contaminated samples and episodes for which no milk samples were taken, mastitis for which 2 organisms were isolated accounted for 35.5% of costs of clinical mastitis, followed by cases for which Escherichia coli (21.3%) was isolated, cases for which culturing yielded no growth (8.6%), and cases for which esculin-positive Streptococcus spp (6.4%), Klebsiella spp (5.7%), esculin-negative CAMP-negative Streptococcus spp (5.1%), Enterobacter spp (4.8%), coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp (4.1%), coagulase-positive Staphylococcus spp (3.0%), S agalactiae (2.5%), and Bacillus spp (1.2%) were isolated. Other categories of classification each accounted for < 0.5% of costs. Mean cost per clinical episode was $107.11. Mean incidence of clinical mastitis was 38.74 cases/100 cowyears. Mixed infections had the highest incidence (mean, 4.80 cases/100 cow-years), followed by cases with no growth (2.96), E coli (2.10), esculin-positive Streptococcus spp (1.94), coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp (1.60), esculin-negative CAMP-negative Streptococcus spp (1.25), coagulase-positive Staphylococcus spp (1.04), Enterobacter spp (0.36), and Klebsiella spp (0.27).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Forty-eight herds participating in the 1988/1989 Ohio National Animal Health Monitoring System dairy project were monitored for 1 year to determine the effects of environment and management on mortality in preweaned calves. Environmental factors were evaluated by veterinarians during monthly visits to the herds. Management procedures were measured through the use of a questionnaire administered near the end of the project. Mortality in preweaned calves was calculated for each herd by using data from project records on calf mortality and animal inventory, which were collected monthly by veterinarians. Relationships between the management/environment variables and calf mortality were examined by use of analysis of covariance. Herd size, days on a nipple feeder, navel disinfection, type of housing, and whether each calf observed with diarrhea was treated with antibiotics were the variables that had an impact on herd mortality. These variables explained approximately 39% of the variation in mortality among herds.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Dairy herds in Ohio were selected by stratified random sampling for participation in a disease-monitoring study to relate Streptococcus agalactiae intramammary prevalence to herd management and environmental conditions. Of 48 herds studied, 27 herds had at least 1 cow infected with this pathogen. Management and environmental conditions were assessed by direct observation as well as by an interview with the dairy producers. One-way anova or χ2 analysis, with presence or absence of Streptococcus agalactiae as the dependent variable, was used to test each of 70 independent variables. Variables found significant at P < 0.20 were further evaluated by use of logistic regression. Our sample size permitted only 4 independent variables to be simultaneously evaluated by logistic regression. The most predictive risk factors were identified as poor teat and udder hygiene, poor environmental sanitation, large herd population, and use of a shared washcloth for premilking cleaning of teats and udders.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

To estimate herd prevalence of Salmonella spp, fecal specimens were obtained for culture from neonatal calves of 47 Ohio dairy herds. Of the 452 calves tested, 10 calves from 7 farms were culturepositive. Salmonella serotypes isolated were S dublin, S typhimurium, S enteritidis, S agona, S mbandaka, and S montevideo. Bulk tank milk filters from these dairies were also submitted for culture. Salmonella sp was isolated from 1 of the 50 filters, and 2 calves from this herd were found to be shedding Salmonella sp of the same serotype.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Over a period of 3 summers, 21 colostrum-fed Holstein bull calves, 1 to 3 days old, were assigned to 7 replicates, each consisting of 3 calves. Within each replicate of 3 calves, 2 were selected at random, to be given 100,000 to 146,000 sporulated coccidia oocysts (principally Eimeria bovis) orally 60 hours after arrival at the college research farm. On the thirteenth day after coccidia inoculation, 1 of the 2 calves that had been given coccidia and the third calf that had not been inoculated, were given coronavirus by intranasal and oral routes. Calves were observed daily, and consistency of feces was scored visually. Nasal swab specimens for indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing for coronavirus and fecal samples for oocyst determination were obtained approximately every third day. Of 7 calves that were given only coronavirus, 3 developed diarrhea of short duration. Of 7 calves that were given only coccidia oocysts, 6 developed diarrhea. All 7 calves inoculated initially with coccidia and subsequently with coronavirus developed diarrhea. For 5 of 7 replicates, calves that were given coccidia and coronavirus developed diarrhea first. When overall severity, measured by fecal score and by blood in the feces, was compared, calves inoculated with coccidia followed by coronavirus were more severely affected (P < 0.05) than were calves that were given only coronavirus. Calves that were given only coccidia oocysts appeared more severely affected than calves that were given only coronavirus, but differences were not significant. Calves that were given either coccidia alone, or coccidia followed by coronavirus, had more severe lesions of mucosal degeneration/epithelial necrosis and inflammation (P < 0.05) than did calves that were given only coronavirus. Lesions, however, were generally most severe in calves that were given coccidia and coronavirus. In 4 calves, fibrinopurulent typhlitis and/or colitis were observed; 3 of these observations were made in calves that were given coccidia followed by coronavirus. These observations indicate that, although coronavirus infection in young calves is common and may be mild in calves given adequate colostrum, when combined with coccidia (principally E bovis) infection, resultant clinical signs of disease and lesions may be more severe than those associated with infection attributable to either coronavirus or coccidia alone.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research