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  • Author or Editor: Susan E. Kimmel x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical and laboratory findings associated with protein-losing enteropathy, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalcemia in Yorkshire Terriers.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—5 purebred or crossbred Yorkshire Terriers with protein-losing enteropathy, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalcemia.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for dogs with protein-losing enteropathy, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalcemia.

Results—Of 8 dogs with these signs, 5 had Yorkshire Terrier breeding. Common findings were diarrhea, abdominal effusion, leukocytosis, neutrophilia, hypocalcemia (ionized calcium), hypomagnesemia, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypocholesterolemia, and increased serum activity of aspartate aminotransferase.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Yorkshire Terriers are at increased risk for development of protein-losing enteropathy with hypomagnesemia and decreased ionized calcium concentration. Hypomagnesemia and hypocalcemia may have a related pathogenesis involving intestinal loss, malabsorption, and abnormalities of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone metabolism. Serum electrolyte replacement may be required to avoid neurologic and metabolic problems. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217: 703–706)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the incidence and prognostic significance of low plasma ionized calcium concentration in cats with clinical signs of acute pancreatitis (AP).

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—46 cats with AP and 92 control cats with nonpancreatic diseases.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and results of clinicopathologic testing, including plasma ionized and total calcium concentrations, acid-base values, and electrolyte concentrations, were recorded. Cats with AP were grouped on the basis of outcome (survived vs died or were euthanatized), and plasma ionized calcium concentrations, acid-base values, and electrolyte concentrations were compared between groups.

Results—Serum total calcium concentration was low in 19 (41%) cats with AP, and plasma ionized calcium concentration was low in 28 (61%). Cats with AP had a significantly lower median plasma ionized calcium concentration (1.07 mmol/L) than did control cats (1.12 mmol/L). Nineteen (41%) cats with AP died or were euthanatized; these cats had a significantly lower median plasma ionized calcium concentration (1.00 mmol/L) than did cats that survived (1.12 mmol/L). Ten of the 13 cats with AP that had plasma ionized calcium concentrations ≤ 1.00 mmol/L died or were euthanatized.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that low plasma ionized calcium concentration is common in cats with AP and is associated with a poorer outcome. A grave prognosis and aggressive medical treatment are warranted for cats with AP that have a plasma ionized calcium concentration ≤ 1.00 mmol/L. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:1105–1109)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of diets differing in type and quantity of fiber on glycemic control in dogs with naturally occurring insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

Design—Prospective randomized crossover controlled trial.

Animals—7 dogs with well-regulated naturally occurring insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

Procedure—Dogs were fed 1 of 3 diets for 1 month each in 1 of 6 randomized diet sequences. Diets included a low-fiber diet (LF) and 2 high-fiber diets; 1 contained only insoluble fiber (HIF), and 1 contained soluble fiber in addition to insoluble fiber (HSF). Caloric intake was unchanged throughout the study. Glycemic control was assessed after each feeding trial by measuring serum fructosamine concentration and performing 5 serial measurements of blood glucose concentration every 2 hours after the morning feeding and insulin injection.

Results—Significant differences were not detected in body weight, required insulin dosage, or albumin concentration among dogs fed the HIF, HSF, and LF diets. Mean and maximum blood glucose concentrations and area under the blood glucose curve were significantly lower in dogs fed the HIF diet, compared with values in the same dogs fed the HSF or LF diet. Fructosamine concentration was significantly lower in dogs fed the HIF or HSF diet, compared with values in the same dogs fed the LF diet.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs with naturally occurring insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, a dry, high insoluble-fiber diet may aid in glycemic control. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1076–1081)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine ultrasonographic findings in cats with clinical, gross pathologic, and histologic evidence of acute pancreatic necrosis.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—20 cats.

Procedure—Ultrasound reports and permanent ultrasonographic images were reviewed, and ultrasonographic findings were recorded. Thoracic and abdominal radiographs were also reviewed, when available. Anatomic localization of pancreatic necrosis was determined from the gross pathology report; duration and severity of pancreatic necrosis were determined by reviewing histologic specimens. The presence of concurrent disease was recorded from the final pathology report.

Results—The pancreas was considered ultrasonographically normal in 10 cats and was not observed in 3. Ultrasonographic findings were considered compatible with pancreatitis in the remaining 7 cats. Gross pathologic findings indicated that pancreatitis was multifocal in all 7 of these cats; histologically, pancreatitis was acute or subacute in 5 and associated with severe or moderate necrosis in 6. In the remaining 13 cats, gross pathologic findings indicated that pancreatitis was multifocal (n = 8) or focal (2), or gross pathologic findings were normal (3). Histologically, pancreatitis was peracute or acute in 11 of these 13 cats and associated with severe or moderate necrosis in 8. Thoracic and abdominal radiographic findings were nonspecific.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of ultrasonography were consistent with a diagnosis of pancreatitis in only 7 of 20 cats with acute pancreatic necrosis in the present study. This suggests that new diagnostic criteria must be established if abdominal ultrasonography is to be an effective tool in the diagnosis of pancreatitis in cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1724–1730)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize clinical, clinicopathologic, radiographic, and ultrasonographic findings in cats with histologically confirmed acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) or chronic nonsuppurative pancreatitis (CP) and identify features that may be useful in the antemortem differentiation of these disorders.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—63 cats with histologically confirmed ANP (n = 30) or CP (33).

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for signalment, clinical signs, concurrent diseases, clinicopathologic findings, and results of radiography and ultrasonography.

Results—Cats in both groups had similar nonspecific clinical signs, physical examination findings, and radiographic and ultrasonographic abnormalities. Abdominal ultrasonographic abnormalities, including hypoechoic pancreas, hyperechoic mesentery, and abdominal effusion, were found in cats in both groups and, therefore, were not specific for ANP. Cats with CP were significantly more likely to have concurrent diseases than were cats with ANP (100 and 83%, respectively). Clinicopathologic abnormalities were similar between groups; however, serum alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities were significantly higher in cats with CP.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that ANP and CP in cats cannot be distinguished from each other solely on the basis of history, physical examination findings, results of clinicopathologic testing, radiographic abnormalities, or ultrasonographic abnormalities. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:469–474)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association