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Abstract

Objective—To describe clinical signs, diagnostic findings, and outcome in dogs with idiopathic intrahepatic portal hypertension.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—33 dogs.

Procedure—Medical records of dogs with portal hypertension of intra-abdominal origin were reviewed. Dogs with intra-abdominal portal hypertension of vascular causes or with hepatic histopathologic changes consistent with severe diffuse hepatobiliary disease were excluded. History and results of physical examination, clinicopathologic tests, diagnostic imaging studies, histologic examination, and treatment were summarized. Outcome was determined in 26 dogs.

Results—Dogs were referred most often because of ascites, intermittent vomiting or diarrhea, and polydipsia of several months' duration. Microcytosis, high serum alkaline phosphatase and alanine transaminase activities, hepatic dysfunction, urine specific gravity ≤ 1.021, and abdominal transudate were the predominant clinicopathologic features. Microhepatia, abdominal effusion, and multiple anomalous venous anastomoses were the major findings of diagnostic imaging. Hepatic histopathologic changes were consistent with idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension and were indistinguishable from those of dogs with surgically created portocaval anastomosis. Outcome was determined for 19 dogs released from hospital; 13 dogs remained healthy with mostly palliative treatment for periods of 5 months to 9 years.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The clinical signs, clinicopathologic test results, portal pressure, and gross appearance of the liver of dogs with idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension may be identical to those of dogs with cirrhosis; therefore liver biopsy is crucial. Because the prognosis for idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension is generally favorable, owners of affected dogs should be discouraged from choosing euthanasia. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000; 218:392–399)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

An experimental model of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (kcs) was produced by removing the lacrimal gland and the gland of the third eyelid from the left eye of 6 cats. The right eye of each cat was left intact and used as a control. After 2 weeks, cats were euthanatized and the central portion of the upper eyelid from both eyes of each cat was excised. Histologic sections were stained with either hematoxylin and eosin or with a battery of biotinylated lectins including concanavalin A (cona), soybean agglutinin (sba), wheat germ agglutinin (wga), succinylated wheat germ agglutinin (s-wga), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (uea), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (dba), Ricinus communis agglutinin (rca), peanut agglutinin (pna), and pna pretreated with neuraminidase.

Consistent differences in histologic features were not observed between conjunctivas with kcs and control conjunctivas. A variable degree of mononuclear cell infiltration of the substantia propria was observed in control conjunctivas and those with kcs. In both groups, conjunctival goblet cell density decreased and epithelial stratification increased as the degree of submucosal inflammatory cell infiltration increased.

Lectin binding sites for dba, wga, s-wga, uea, pna, and pna pretreated with neuraminidase were detected on conjunctival goblet cells of conjunctivas with kcs and control conjunctivas. The mucus/glycocalyx layer of conjunctival epithelial cells in both groups of conjunctivas bound lectins rca, wga, uea, and cona, but inconsistently bound s-wga. In both groups, dba principally bound to the mucus layer overlying normal epithelium, whereas pna pretreated with neuraminidase consistently bound to the mucus layer of stratified epithelial surfaces free of goblet cells. Binding of sba to goblet cells and the mucus/glycocalyx layer was variable.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To describe a technique for closed reduction of and application of a type-II external fixator to comminuted fractures of the radius and tibia in dogs and to evaluate outcome of the technique in a series of client-owned dogs.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

23 dogs that underwent closed reduction of severely comminuted (≥ 5 fragments); mid-diaphyseal radial (n = 9); and tibial (n = 14) fractures and stabilization with a type-II external fixator.

Procedure

Radiographs were made postoperatively and every 4 to 6 weeks until the fixator was removed. The effect of type of fracture (open vs closed), type of pins (threaded vs smooth), and number of fixation pins on surgery time, time between surgery and development of bridging callus, and time between surgery and removal of the fixator was evaluated using one-sided Student's t-tests.

Results

21 fractures healed after a single surgery. Two dogs with radial fractures required a second procedure because of complications. All fractures healed with the original fixation device in place. Mean time between surgery and the development of bridging callus was 11.4 weeks (range, 4 to 22 weeks), and mean time between surgery and fixator removal was 14.7 weeks (range, 4 to 27 weeks). Type of fracture, type of pins, and number of fixation pins did not have a significant effect on surgery time, time to development of bridging callus, or time to fixator removal.

Clinical Implications

Closed reduction and application of a type-II external fixator was an effective method of treating severely comminuted radial and tibial fractures. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:1445–1448)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Ursodeoxycholic acid (udca; 10 mg/kg of body weight) was administered orally to 5 healthy cats for 3 months. Signs of illness were not apparent in any cat during treatment with udca. Results of monthly CBC, serum biochemical analysis, and urinalysis were unchanged during drug administration. There was a decrease in serum cholesterol concentration in 4 cats. Total postprandial serum bile acids (ppsba) concentration was significantly (P = 0.0003) increased over total preprandial serum bile acids (prsba) concentration at all sample collection periods. The PRSBA and PPSBA concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) increased at all sample collection periods after administration of udca, compared with baseline values. Ursodeoxycholic and tauroursodeoxycholic acids were not detected in serum prior to initiating administration of udca. Both bile acids were detected in the serum of all cats 1 and 2 months after udca administration and were detected in the serum of 2 cats 3 months after initiating UCDA administration. Hepatic ultrasonographic findings were normal before and after completion of udca administration. A mild, focal lymphocytic infiltrate was observed in 3 cats 3 months after initiating udca administration. Results of the study indicate that udca is absorbed into the systemic circulation of cats after oral administration, undergoes hepatic conjugation, and appears to be safe.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To examine acid-base and hormonal abnormalities in dogs with diabetes mellitus.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—48 dogs with diabetes mellitus and 17 healthy dogs.

Procedures—Blood was collected and serum ketone, glucose, lactate, electrolytes, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, nonesterified fatty acid, and triglyceride concentrations were measured. Indicators of acid-base status were calculated and compared between groups.

Results—Serum ketone and glucose concentrations were significantly higher in diabetic than in healthy dogs, but there was no difference in venous blood pH or base excess between groups. Anion gap and strong ion difference were significantly higher and strong ion gap and serum bicarbonate concentration were significantly lower in the diabetic dogs. There were significant linear relationships between measures of acid-base status and serum ketone concentration, but not between measures of acid-base status and serum lactate concentration. Serum insulin concentration did not differ significantly between groups, but diabetic dogs had a wider range of values. All diabetic dogs with a serum ketone concentration > 1,000 μmol/L had a serum insulin concentration < 5 μU/mL. There were strong relationships between serum ketone concentration and serum glucagon-insulin ratio, serum cortisol concentration, and plasma norepinephrine concentration. Serum β-hydroxybutyrate concentration, expressed as a percentage of serum ketone concentration, decreased as serum ketone concentration increased.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that ketosis in diabetic dogs was related to the glucagon-insulin ratio with only low concentrations of insulin required to prevent ketosis. Acidosis in ketotic dogs was attributable largely to high serum ketone concentrations.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Serum lipoprotein concentrations, routine serum biochemical values, and morphologic changes of the liver were evaluated in cats undergoing weight loss. Food was witheld from 6 obese and 6 control cats for 3 days (days 0 to 2), followed by feeding 50% of previous food intake for 26 days (days 3 to 28). Percutaneous liver biopsy specimens were obtained from all cats on days 0, 7, 14, and 28. Blood samples for serum biochemical analysis and lipoprotein profiles were obtained on days 0, 3, 7, 14, and 28. All cats lost weight throughout the study, and none developed signs of clinical illness, including those of idiopathic hepatic lipidosis syndrome. Serum total cholesterol concentrations decreased initially in all cats, but rapidly returned to normal after day 3 in obese cats, suggesting altered cholesterol metabolism during dietary restriction. Low-density lipoprotein concentrations decreased throughout the study in control cats, but were unchanged in obese cats. Examination of liver biopsy specimens from each cat revealed minimal lipid accumulation in all specimens, although some specimens contained hydropic degeneration.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Case Description—A 21-month-old spayed female Border Collie was examined because of progressive right forelimb lameness, signs of pain, and subcutaneous edema. The dog lived in a fenced yard in Tampa, Fla, that contained a small area of marshy terrain.

Clinical Findings—The subcutis and intermuscular fascia contained multiple cystic cavities filled with larval cestodes (plerocercoids or spargana) and cloudy red fluid. Parasites were identified morphologically and by DNA sequence analysis as pseudophyllidean cestodes, most likely Sparganum proliferum. The dog developed a progressively worsening fever, dyspnea, mature neutrophilia, and hypoproteinemia. Septic pleuritis and peritonitis complicated the later stages of the disease.

Treatment and Outcome—Treatment with praziquantel, fenbendazole, and nitazoxanide failed to control the proliferation and dissemination of larval cestodes. The dog was euthanatized after 133 days of treatment. At necropsy, numerous parasitic tissue cysts were present in the subcutis and intermuscular fascia; these cysts were most abundant in the soft tissues of the forelimbs and cervical musculature. The pleural and peritoneal cavities contained multiple larval cestodes and were characterized by neutrophilic inflammation and secondary bacterial infection.

Clinical Relevance—Findings indicated that clinical signs associated with proliferative sparganosis in dogs may be rapidly progressive and that the condition may be refractory to antiparasitic treatment. Veterinarians should be aware of this zoonotic, water-borne agent.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association