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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate changes in digital vascular function in horses with carbohydrate overload (CHO)-induced laminitis and determine the effects of an endothelin (ET) receptor antagonist and nitroglycerin on laminitis-associated vascular dysfunction.

Animals—20 adult horses without abnormalities of the digit.

Procedures—Hemodynamic variables were recorded before (baseline) and hourly after all horses were administered a CHO ration via nasogastric tube. In 4 groups of 5 horses each, saline (0.9% NaCl) solution or ET receptor antagonist (10−5M in digital blood) was administered into the digital arterial circulation according to 1 of 2 schedules. During anesthesia, blood flow; arterial, venous, and capillary pressures; and total, precapillary, and postcapillary resistances were measured in an isolated perfused digit of each horse. In all groups, nitroglycerin was infused (10−5M in digital blood), and digital microvascular assessments were repeated.

Results—The CHO caused a significant decrease in right atrial pressure by 14 hours that was not affected by administration of saline solution or ET receptor antagonist. In isolated digits of anesthetized horses, CHO resulted in a significant decrease in digital blood flow associated with a significant increase in total and postcapillary resistances. Treatment with the ET receptor antagonist and nitroglycerin caused a significant decrease in total resistance. Postcapillary resistance was significantly decreased following treatment with the ET receptor antagonist but was not altered by treatment with nitroglycerin.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treatment with an ET receptor antagonist and nitroglycerin resulted in significant improvement in vascular resistance in isolated perfused digits of anesthetized horses with CHO-induced laminitis.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To examine the secretory response (in the presence and absence of prostaglandin inhibition) in vitro and structural alterations of colonic mucosa in horses after intragastric administration of black walnut extract (BWE).

Animals—14 adult horses.

Procedure—Seven horses were administered BWE intragastrically and monitored for 11 hours. Tissue samples were obtained from the right ventral, left ventral, and right dorsal colons (RVC, LVC, and RDC, respectively) of the 7 BWE-treated and 7 control horses. Tissue samples were examined via light microscopy, and the extent of hemorrhage, edema, and granulocytic cellular infiltration (neutrophils and eosinophils) was graded. Colonic mucosal segments were incubated with or without flunixin meglumine (FLM) for 240 minutes; spontaneous electrical potential difference and short-circuit current (Isc) were recorded and used to calculate mucosal resistance.

Results—Colonic tissues from BWE-treated horses (with or without FLM exposure) had an overall greater Isc during the 240-minute incubation period, compared with tissues from control horses. The resistance pattern in RVC, LVC, and RDC samples (with or without FLM exposure) from BWE-treated horses was decreased overall, compared with control tissues (with or without FLM exposure). Histologically, colonic mucosal tissues from BWE-treated horses had more severe inflammation (involving primarily eosinophils), edema, and hemorrhage, compared with tissue from control horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In horses, BWE administration appears to cause an inflammatory response in colonic mucosal epithelium that results in mucosal barrier compromise as indicated by decreased mucosal resistance with presumed concomitant electrogenic chloride secretory response, which is not associated with prostaglandin mediation. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:443–449)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare effects of oxytocin, acepromazine maleate, xylazine hydrochloride-butorphanol tartrate, guaifenesin, and detomidine hydrochloride on esophageal manometric pressure in horses.

Animals—8 healthy adult horses.

Procedure—A nasogastric tube, modified with 3 polyethylene tubes that exited at the postpharyngeal area, thoracic inlet, and distal portion of the esophagus, was fitted for each horse. Amplitude, duration, and rate of propagation of pressure waveforms induced by swallows were measured at 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 minutes after administration of oxytocin, detomidine, acepromazine, xylazine-butorphanol, guaifenesin, or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Number of spontaneous swallows, spontaneous events (contractions that occurred in the absence of a swallow stimulus), and high-pressure events (sustained increases in baseline pressure of > 10 mm Hg) were compared before and after drug administration.

Results—At 5 minutes after administration, detomidine increased waveform amplitude and decreased waveform duration at the thoracic inlet. At 10 minutes after administration, detomidine increased waveform duration at the thoracic inlet. Acepromazine administration increased the number of spontaneous events at the thoracic inlet and distal portion of the esophagus. Acepromazine and detomidine administration increased the number of high-pressure events at the thoracic inlet. Guaifenesin administration increased the number of spontaneous events at the thoracic inlet. Xylazine-butorphanol, detomidine, acepromazine, and guaifenesin administration decreased the number of spontaneous swallows.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Detomidine, acepromazine, and a combination of xylazine butorphanol had the greatest effect on esophageal motility when evaluated manometrically. Reduction in spontaneous swallowing and changes in normal, coordinated peristaltic activity are the most clinically relevant effects. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1738–1744)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the in vitro effects of oxytocin, acepromazine, xylazine, butorphanol, detomidine, dantrolene, isoproterenol, and terbutaline on skeletal and smooth muscle from the equine esophagus.

Animals—14 adult horses without digestive tract disease.

Procedure—Circular and longitudinal strips from the skeletal and smooth muscle of the esophagus were suspended in tissue baths, connected to force-displacement transducers interfaced with a physiograph, and electrical field stimulation was applied. Cumulative concentration-response curves were generated for oxytocin, acepromazine, xylazine, detomidine, butorphanol, isoproterenol, terbutaline, and dantrolene. Mean maximum twitch amplitude for 3 contractions/min was recorded and compared with predrug-vehicle values for the skeletal muscle segments, and area under the curve (AUC) for 3 contractions/min was compared with predrug-vehicle values for the smooth muscle segments.

Results—No drugs caused a significant change in skeletal muscle response. In smooth muscle, isoproterenol, terbutaline, and oxytocin significantly reduced AUC in a concentration-dependent manner. Maximum reduction in AUC was 69% at 10–4M for isoproterenol, 63% at 10–5M for terbutaline, and 64% at 10–4M for oxytocin.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Isoproterenol, terbutaline, and oxytocin cause relaxation of the smooth muscle portion of the esophagus. The clinical relaxant effects on the proximal portion of the esophagus reported of drugs such as oxytocin, detomidine, and acepromazine may be the result of centrally mediated mechanisms. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1732–1737)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the in vitro response of circular and longitudinal myometrial layers of the uterine horn (CMLH and LMLH, respectively) of horses to endothelin (ET)-1 by use of specific ETA (BQ-123) and ETB (IRL-1038) receptor antagonists.

Sample Population—Uteruses from 10 nongravid mares in anestrus.

Procedure—Muscle strips from the CMLH and LMLH were suspended in tissue baths and connected to force-displacement transducers interfaced with a polygraph. Strips were incubated for 45-minute intervals with no antagonist (control specimens), and 3 concentrations (10–9, 10–7, and 10–5M) of BQ-123, IRL- 1038, or BQ-123 and IRL-1038 before concentrationresponse curves to ET-1 were generated. Contractile response to cumulative concentrations of ET-1 (10–9 to 10–6M) was quantified by measuring change in the area under the curve (AUC) for the 3-minute period after each ET-1 dose.

Results—ET-1 caused concentration-dependent contraction of the CMLH and LMLH specimens. Application of BQ-123 decreased AUC values for both layers. Application of IRL-1038 increased the AUC value for LMLH specimens but did not affect the CMLH value. The combination of BQ-123 and IRL-1038 decreased the AUC value for LMLH tissue and increased that for CMLH tissue.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—ET-1 causes contraction of the CMLH and LMLH in nongravid horses. In both layers, ETA receptors mediate contraction but the role of ETB receptors remains unclear. In the LMLH, ETA receptors have a dominant role; the presence of another receptor or receptor subtype within this layer is suggested. These findings support a physiologic role for ET-1 in uterine contractility. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1094–1100)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the in vitro response of equine cecal longitudinal smooth muscle (CLSM) to endothelin (ET)-1 and assess the role of ETA and ETB receptors in those ET-1–induced responses.

Animals—36 horses without gastrointestinal tract disease.

Procedure—To determine cumulative concentrationresponse relationships, CLSM strips were suspended in tissue baths containing graded concentrations of ET-1 (10–9 to 10–6M) with or without BQ-123 (ETA receptor antagonist); with or without IRL-1038 (ETB receptor antagonist); or with both antagonists at concentrations of 10–9, 10–7, and 10–5M. To determine the percentage change in baseline tension of CLSM, the areas under the curve during the 3-minute periods before and after addition of each dose were compared . Also, the effects of ET-1 and a combination of selective ETA and ETB receptor antagonists on electrically evoked contractions were studied.

Results—ET-1 caused sustained increases in CLSM tension in a concentration-dependent manner. Contractile responses to ET-1 were not significantly inhibited by either BQ-123 or IRL-1038 alone at any concentration; however, responses were significantly inhibited by exposure to the antagonists together at a concentration of 10–5M. Electrical field stimulation did not change the spontaneous contractile activity of CLSM and did not significantly alter the tissue response to ET-1, BQ-123, or IRL-1038.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that ET-1 has a contractile effect on equine CLSM that is mediated via ETA and ETB receptors. In vitro spontaneous contractions of equine CLSM apparently originate in the smooth muscle and not the enteric nervous system. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1202–1208)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To establish an in vivo method for matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 induction in horses via IV administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to evaluate the ability of doxycycline, oxytetracycline, flunixin meglumine, and pentoxifylline to inhibit equine MMP-2 and MMP-9 production.

Animals—29 adult horses of various ages and breeds and either sex.

Procedures—In part 1, horses received an IV administration of LPS (n = 5) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (5). Venous blood samples were collected before and at specified times for 24 hours after infusion. Plasma was harvested and analyzed for MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities via zymography. In part 2, horses received doxycycline (n = 5), oxytetracycline (5), flunixin meglumine (5), or pentoxifylline (4) before and for up to 12 hours after administration of LPS. Plasma was obtained and analyzed, and results were compared with results from the LPS-infused horses of part 1.

Results—Administration of LPS significantly increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in the venous circulation of horses. All MMP inhibitors significantly decreased LPS-induced increases in MMP activities but to differing degrees. Pentoxifylline and oxytetracycline appeared to be the most effective MMP-2 and MMP-9 inhibitors, whereas doxycycline and flunixin meglumine were more effective at inhibiting MMP-2 activity than MMP-9 activity.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IV administration of LPS to horses caused increased venous plasma activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9. These MMP activities were reduced by pentoxifylline and oxytetracycline, suggesting that further evaluation of these medications for treatment and prevention of MMP-associated diseases in horses is indicated.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize alterations in systemic and local colonic hemodynamic variables associated with IV infusion of ATP-MgCl2 in healthy anesthetized horses.

Animals—12 adult horses.

Procedure—Six horses were given ATP-MgCl2, IV, beginning at a rate of 0.1 mg of ATP/kg of body weight/min with incremental increases until a rate of 1.0 mg/kg/min was achieved. The remaining 6 horses were given an equivalent volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution over the same time period. Colonic and systemic hemodynamic variables and colonic plasma nitric oxide (NO) concentrations were determined before, during, and after infusion.

Results—Infusion of ATP-MgCl2 caused a rate-dependent decrease in systemic and colonic vascular resistance, principally via its vasodilatory effects. A rate of 0.3 mg of ATP/kg/min caused a significant decrease in systemic and colonic arterial pressure and colonic vascular resistance without a significant corresponding decrease in colonic arterial blood flow. Consistent alterations in NO concentrations of plasma obtained from colonic vasculature were not detected, despite profound vasodilatation of the colonic arterial vasculature.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results revealed that IV infusion of ATP-MgCl2 may be beneficial in maintaining colonic perfusion in horses with ischemia of the gastrointestinal tract, provided a sufficient pressure gradient exists to maintain blood flow. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1240–1249)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate systemic effects of IV infusion of ATP-MgCl2 subsequent to infusion of a low dose of endotoxin in horses.

Animals—12 adult horses.

Procedure—Horses were administered endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, IV, during a 30-minute period. Immediately thereafter, horses in each group were infused IV with ATP-MgCl2 or saline solution. Two weeks later, horses were administered the opposite solution (LPS or saline solution), but it was followed by the same infusion as 2 weeks previously (ie, ATP-MgCl2 or saline solution). Cardiopulmonary and clinicopathologic variables, cytokine activity, and endothelin (ET) concentrations were recorded.

Results—IV infusion of ATP-MgCl2 after administration of a low dose of endotoxin failed to attenuate the cardiopulmonary, clinicopathologic, and cytokine alterations that develop secondary to endotoxin exposure. The combination of LPS and ATP-MgCl2 potentiated pulmonary hypertension, leukopenia, and neutropenia when compared with the combination of LPS and saline solution. The combination of LPS and ATP-MgCl2 resulted in thrombocytopenia. Endothelin concentration was increased in jugular venous and pulmonary arterial plasma in horses receiving LPS and ATP-MgCl2. Similar increases were not observed with LPS and saline solution.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of ATP-MgCl2 did not protect horses from systemic effects of experimentally induced endotoxemia. Furthermore, the use of ATP-MgCl2 during endotoxemia may worsen the cardiopulmonary and clinicopathologic status of affected horses. Because ATP and other adenine nucleotides are released from cells during shock, their potential role in the development of hemodynamic derangements, leukocyte adherence, and coagulopathies during endotoxemic episodes warrants further investigation. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65: 225–237)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To quantify changes in endothelium-derived factors and relate those changes to various aspects of digital hemodynamics during the prodromal stages of carbohydrate overload (CHO)-induced laminitis in horses.

Animals—20 adult horses without abnormalities of the digit.

Procedures—Digital and jugular venous blood samples were collected at 1-hour intervals (for assessment of endothelin-1 [ET-1] immunoreactivity and measurement of glucose, insulin, and nitric oxide [NO] concentrations) or 4-hour intervals (CBC and platelet-neutrophil aggregate assessment) for 8 hours or 16 hours after induction of CHO-associated laminitis in horses treated with an ET-1 antagonist. Effects of treatment, collection site, and time and the random effects of horse on each variable were analyzed by use of a repeated-measures model. Where treatment and collection site had no significant effect, data were combined.

Results—Compared with baseline values, CHO resulted in changes in several variables, including a significant increase from baseline in digital blood ET-like immunoreactivity at 11 hours; digital blood ET-like immunoreactivity was significantly greater than that in jugular venous blood at 8, 9, 11, and 12 hours. Digital and jugular venous blood concentrations of glucose increased from baseline significantly at 3, 4, and 5 hours; insulin concentration increased significantly at 5 hours; and the number of platelet-neutrophil aggregates increased significantly at 12 hours.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In horses, concurrent increases in venous blood ET-1 immunoreactivity, insulin and glucose concentrations, and platelet-neutrophil aggregates support a role of endothelial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of CHO-induced laminitis.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research