To compare the effect of a circulating warm water blanket (WWB) in combination with a heated humidified breathing circuit (HHBC) heated to 45 °C on rectal temperature (RT) in dogs undergoing general anesthesia for elective ovariohysterectomies.
29 healthy dogs.
Dogs in the experimental group (n = 8) and dogs in the control group (21) were connected to an HHBC and a conventional rebreathing circuit, respectively. All dogs were placed on a WWB in the operating room (OR). The RT was recorded at baseline, premedication, induction, transfer to OR, every 15 minutes during maintenance of anesthesia, and extubation. Incidence of hypothermia (RT < 37 °C) at extubation was recorded. Data were analyzed using unpaired t tests, the Fisher exact test, and mixed-effect ANOVA. Statistical significance was defined as P < .05.
There was no difference in RT during baseline, premedication, induction, and transfer to OR. The overall RT was higher for the HHBC group during anesthesia (P = .005) and at extubation (37.7 ± 0.6 °C) compared with the control group (36.6 ± 1.0 °C; P = .006). The incidence of hypothermia at extubation was 12.5% for the HHBC group and 66.7% for the control group (P = .014).
The combination of HHBC and WWB can reduce the incidence of postanesthetic hypothermia in dogs. Use of an HHBC should be considered in veterinary patients.
Femoral fractures are often catastrophic in large animals. Radiographic diagnosis is limited by patient size and feasibility, especially in ambulatory settings. Ultrasonography is widely available and may provide an alternative to radiography for definitive diagnosis.
12 large animals (6 horses, 5 cattle, and 1 elephant).
Retrospective analysis of large animal patients diagnosed with femoral fracture by use of femoropelvic ultrasonography (2000 to 2019).
5 of 12 cases were ≤ 1 year of age. The remaining 7 cases were 2 to 33 years of age (median, 13 years). All patients developed severe acute lameness after falling (n = 4), limb entrapment (2), dystocia (1), vehicular collision (1), ipsilateral full limb casting (1), or unknown events (3). All were non–weight-bearing or lame at the walk, including 2 recumbent cattle. Ten cases showed upper limb swelling that was variable in location, and 3 had nonspecific upper limb crepitus. Ultrasonography revealed evidence of diaphyseal (n = 6), greater trochanteric (2), capital physeal (2), and distal femoral (2) fractures. Fracture movement during limb manipulation or weight shifting was sonographically visualized in 5 animals. Radiography confirmed fractures in 3 of 8 animals: 2 bovines with distal femoral fractures detected on standing projections and 1 capital physeal fracture that required ventrodorsal projections under general anesthesia. All animals were euthanized (11) or slaughtered (1 bovine). Postmortem examination confirmed ultrasonographic findings in 10 of 10 necropsied animals.
Femoral fractures were not localized nor confirmed in any case prior to ultrasonography. Study findings supported the use of ultrasonography for rapid patient-side diagnosis, prognostication, and decision-making in suspect cases.
Objective—To determine whether mild restriction of
food intake affects clinicopathologic variables, body
composition, and performance of dogs undertaking
intense sprint exercise.
Animals—9 trained healthy adult Greyhounds.
Procedure—Dogs were offered food free choice
once daily for 9 weeks until body weight and food
intake stabilized. Dogs were then randomly assigned
to be fed either 85% or 100% of this quantity of food
in a crossover study (duration of each diet treatment
period, 9 weeks). Dogs raced a distance of 500 m
twice weekly. Clinicopathologic variables were
assessed before and 5 minutes after racing; food
intake, weight, body composition, body condition
score, and race times were compared at the end of
each diet period.
Results—Compared with values associated with
unrestricted access to food, there were significant
decreases in mean body weight (by 6%) and median
body condition score (from 3.75 to 3.5 on a 9-point
scale) and the mean speed of the dogs was significantly
faster (by 0.7 km/h) when food intake was
restricted. Body composition and most clinicopathologic
variables were unaffected by diet treatment, but
dogs given restricted access to food had slightly
fewer neutrophils, compared with values determined
when food intake was unrestricted.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate
that the common practice among Greyhound
trainers of mildly restricting food intake of racing dogs
to reduce body weight does improve sprint performance.
A body condition score of approximately 3.5
on a 9-point scale is normal for a trained Greyhound in
racing condition. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1065–1070)