Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 9 of 9 items for

  • Author or Editor: Susan A. Brown x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Objective

To examine clinical and pathologic findings in 60 ferrets with lymphoma.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

60 ferrets in which the diagnosis of lymphoma had been confirmed by means of histologic examination of biopsy or necropsy specimens.

Procedure

Information including age, sex, coat color, history, clinical signs, clinicopathologic abnormalities, treatment, outcome, and results of histologic examination of biopsy and necropsy specimens were retrieved from medical records of ferrets with spontaneous lymphoma examined between 1982 and 1994 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology or private veterinary practices in 10 states. Classification of lymphoma was assigned according to the National Cancer Institute's working formulation for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, χ2 Trend analysis was used to determine whether age was associated with history, clinical signs, hematologic abnormalities, stage, histologic grade, or outcome.

Results

Acute onset, mediastinal mass, lymphocytosis, and multicentric distribution were linked with younger ferrets, and lymphopenia and survival longer than 2 months after diagnosis was associated with older ferrets. Twenty percent of ferrets in this study had cohabitated with another ferret with lymphoma. Chemotherapeutic efficacy was not evaluated.

Clinical Implications

Clinical and pathologic features linked with age should be considered when evaluating diagnostic and therapeutic options for ferrets with lymphoma. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208: 1297–1301)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe development and initial psychometric testing of an owner-reported questionnaire designed to standardize measurement of general quality of life (QOL) in dogs with cancer.

DESIGN Key-informant interviews, questionnaire development, and field trial.

SAMPLE Owners of 25 dogs with cancer for item development and pretesting and owners of 90 dogs with cancer for reliability and validity testing.

PROCEDURES Standard methods for development and testing of questionnaire instruments intended to measure subjective states were used. Items were generated, selected, scaled, and pretested for content, meaning, and readability. Response items were evaluated with exploratory factor analysis and by assessing internal consistency (Cronbach α) and convergence with global QOL as determined with a visual analog scale. Preliminary tests of stability and responsiveness were performed.

RESULTS The final questionnaire—which was named the Canine Owner-Reported Quality of Life (CORQ) questionnaire—contained 17 items related to observable behaviors commonly used by owners to evaluate QOL in their dogs. Several items pertaining to physical symptoms performed poorly and were omitted. The 17 items were assigned to 4 factors—vitality, companionship, pain, and mobility—on the basis of the items they contained. The CORQ questionnaire and its factors had high internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.68 to 0.90) and moderate to strong correlations (r = 0.49 to 0.71) with global QOL as measured on a visual analog scale. Preliminary testing indicated good test-retest reliability and responsiveness to improvements in overall QOL.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The CORQ questionnaire was a valid, reliable owner-reported questionnaire that measured general QOL in dogs with cancer and showed promise as a clinical trial outcome measure for quantifying changes in individual dog QOL occurring in response to cancer treatment and progression.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Hepatobiliary scintigraphy provides a noninvasive assessment of hepatobiliary structure and function, and has been used extensively in people. Hepatocellular measurements determined in the cats of this study include cardiac washout (≤ 2 minutes) and time of maximal hepatic activity (≤ 5 minutes) and hepatic washout (≤ 30 minutes). The gallbladder response to synthetic cholecystokinin was determined to be ≤ 3 minutes. Additional measurements also were identified. Potential use of hepatobiliary scintigraphy in feline medicine is discussed.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess histologic evaluation of mandibular lymph nodes (MLNs) and medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes (MRLNs) for metastatic disease during tumor staging for dogs with oral malignant melanoma (OMM) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).

DESIGN

Retrospective multi-institutional study.

ANIMALS

27 dogs with OMM and 21 dogs with OSCC.

PROCEDURES

Medical record databases of 8 institutions were searched to identify dogs with OMM or OSCC that underwent unilateral or bilateral extirpation of the MLNs and MRLNs during the same procedure between January 2004 and April 2016. Information extracted from the records included signalment, primary mass location and size, diagnostic imaging results, histologic results for the primary tumor and all lymph nodes evaluated, and whether distant metastasis developed.

RESULTS

Prevalence of lymph node metastasis did not differ significantly between dogs with OMM (10/27 [37%]) and dogs with OSCC (6/21 [29%]). Distant metastasis was identified in 11 (41%) dogs with OMM and was suspected in 1 dog with OSCC. The MRLN was affected in 13 of 16 dogs with lymph node metastasis, and 3 of those dogs had metastasis to the MRLN without concurrent metastasis to an MLN. Metastasis was identified in lymph nodes contralateral to the primary tumor in 4 of 17 dogs that underwent contralateral lymph node removal.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated histologic evaluation of only 1 MLN was insufficient to definitively rule out lymph node metastasis in dogs with OMM or OSCC; therefore, bilateral lymphadenectomy of the MLN and MRLN lymphocentra is recommended for such dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Sixteen horses were allotted at random to 3 groups: vehicle only; low dosage (vehicle and 3 mg of U-74389G/kg of body weight); high dosage (vehicle and 10 mg of U-74389G/kg). These solutions were given prior to reperfusion. The ascending colon was subjected to 2 hours of ischemia followed by 2 hours of reperfusion. Before, during, and after ischemia, full-thickness colonic tissue biopsy specimens were obtained for measurement of malondealdehyde (mda) concentration and myeloperoxidase activity and for morphologic evaluation.

Although increases were not significant, mda concentration and myeloperoxidase activity increased during ischemia and reperfusion. Administration of U-74389G did not have significant effects on mda concentration and myeloperoxidase activity. However, the lower dosage tended (P = 0.08) to reduce myeloperoxidase activity at 30 and 60 minutes of reperfusion.

In horses of the vehicle-only group, ischemia induced a decrease in mucosal surface area that was continued into the reperfusion period (P ≤ 0.05). Administration of U-74389G at both dosages (3 and 10 mg/kg) prevented the reperfusion-induced reduction in mucosal surface area, which was significant at 60 minutes (high dosage; P = 0.05) and 90 minutes (low and high dosages; P = 0.02). After initial reduction in horses of all groups, mucosal volume increased for the initial 60 minutes of reperfusion.

Our results indicate that lipid peroxidation may be partially involved in continued cellular death after ischemia of the ascending colon of horses. The 21-aminosteroid, U-74389G, prevented further loss of mucosa and partially attenuated the induced increase in myeloperoxidase activity during reperfusion of the ascending colon.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine the effects of the 21-amino-steroid, U-74389G, on reperfusion of the equine jejunum, using total (TVO) and partial (PVO) vascular occlusion during the ischemic period.

Design

TVO: 16 healthy horses were randomly allotted to 3 groups—4 horses received the vehicle alone, 6 horses received a low dosage (3 mg/kg of body weight), and 6 horses a high dosage (10 mg/kg) of U-74389G. PVO: 10 healthy horses were randomly allotted to 2 groups—5 horses received the vehicle alone, and 5 horses received the low dosage (3 mg/kg) of U-74389G.

Procedure

TVO was induced for 1 hour followed by 2 hours of reperfusion. During PVO, blood flow was reduced to 20% of baseline for 2 hours, followed by 2 hours of reperfusion.

For both models, either the vehicle alone or the drug was given 15 minutes prior to reperfusion. Samples were obtained before, during, and after ischemia for determination of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, malondealdehyde (MDA) concentration, concentration of conjugated dienes (PVO experiment only), and morphometric analysis.

Results

TVO: tissue concentration of MDA and MPO activity were not altered in any group by ischemia or reperfusion. During ischemia, mucosal volume and surface area were reduced. After reperfusion, no further reduction occurred. After initial decrease in submucosal volume during ischemia, there was a significant increase after reperfusion in the vehicle-only group (P < 0.05). PVO: there were no alterations in the concentration of either MDA or conjugated dienes. There was a significant increase in the activity of MPO during ischemia and reperfusion (P< 0.05). These effects were similar for the vehicle-only and drug groups. During ischemia, there was a significant decrease in mucosal surface area and volume (P< 0.05), that was continued during reperfusion for the vehicle-only group (P< 0.05). Submucosal volume increased during reperfusion (P< 0.05). Serosal volume was increased during ischemia and reperfusion.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Reduced blood flow during ischemia (PVO group) caused continued loss in mucosal volume and surface area during reperfusion. At the dosage given, the 21-aminosteroid, U-74389G, was not effective in preventing continued reduction in mucosal volume and surface area after restoration of blood supply in the horses subjected to reduced blood flow. (Am J Vet Res 1996; 57:762–770)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To test the hypothesis that feedlot cattle with acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) have bacterial infection of the lung or liver and concurrent bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection significantly more often than pen mates without AIP.

Animals—39 feedlot cattle with signs consistent with AIP and no history of treatment with antimicrobials and 32 healthy control cattle from the same pens.

Procedure—Lung and liver specimens were obtained postmortem for bacterial or mycoplasmal culture and histologic examination; lung tissue was assessed for BRSV infection immunohistochemically.

Results—Among affected cattle, 26 had AIP confirmed histologically. Lung tissue from 11 cattle with AIP yielded microbial respiratory tract pathogens on culture; tissues from control animals yielded no microbial growth. In 4 cattle with AIP and 2 control animals, liver abscesses were detected; bacteria were isolated from abscessed tissue in 3 and 1 of those animals, respectively. Immunohistochemically, 9 cattle with AIP and no control animals were BRSV-positive. Histologically, 9 AIP-affected cattle had only acute alveolar damage with exudation, and the other 17 had acute exudation with type II pneumocyte hyperplasia. No lesions of AIP were detected in control animals. Only 4 AIP-affected cattle had bacterial infection of the lung with concurrent BRSV infection.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that microbial respiratory tract pathogens are more common in cattle with AIP than in healthy pen mates. Control of bacterial pneumonia late in the feeding period may reduce the incidence of AIP at feedlots where AIP is a problem. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1525–1532)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research