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Authors Sue Chen and Tracy Bartick


Case Description—A 5-year-old sexually intact male cockatiel was examined because of progressive dyspnea of 1 week's duration.

Clinical Findings—On auscultation of the lungs and air sacs, crackles were detected; the abdomen was distended and fluctuant on palpation. Eleven milliliters of clear yellow fluid was collected via abdominocentesis. Radiography (with and without contrast medium) and ultrasonography revealed a soft tissue mass in the caudoventral portion of the coelom.

Treatment and Outcome—Exploratory surgery of the coelomic cavity was performed and the neoplasm was excised. Histologic examination of the neoplasm was consistent with a high-grade pancreatic exocrine adenocarcinoma. Celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, was administered for pain management and for potential antineoplastic activity. For 4.5 months after surgery, the bird had no recurrence of clinical signs; however, dyspnea recurred and during evaluation, the bird died. Necropsy findings indicated that the pancreatic adenocarcinoma had metastasized to surrounding tissues and vessels, which was not unexpected given the high grade assigned to the neoplasm during histologic analysis.

Clinical Relevance—Pancreatic neoplasms are associated with a poor prognosis, regardless of treatment modality. Celecoxib can be administered as palliative treatment to affected birds, but as with any nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, COX-2 inhibitors should be used cautiously because they can adversely affect renal function by decreasing renal prostaglandin synthesis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate agreement of 3 models of portable blood glucose meters (PBGMs; 2 designed for use with human samples and 1 designed for veterinary use) with a laboratory analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentrations in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

Design—Evaluation study.

Animals—52 ferrets.

Procedures—Samples were analyzed with 4 PBGMs (whole blood) and a laboratory analyzer (plasma). Two PBGMs of the model designed for veterinary use were tested; each was set to a code corresponding to canine or feline sample analysis throughout the study. Agreement and bias between measurements obtained with the PBGMs and the laboratory analyzer were assessed with Bland-Altman plots. Linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate associations with venipuncture site by comparison of central (jugular) and peripheral (lateral saphenous or cephalic) venous blood samples.

Results—Plasma glucose concentrations measured with the laboratory analyzer ranged from 41 to 160 mg/dL. Results from the PBGM for veterinary use coded to test a canine blood sample had the greatest agreement with the laboratory analyzer (mean bias, 1.9 mg/dL); all other PBGMs significantly underestimated blood glucose concentrations. A PBGM designed for use with human samples had the least agreement with the laboratory analyzer (mean bias, −34.0 mg/dL). Blood glucose concentration was not significantly different between central and peripheral venous blood samples for any analyzer used.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Significant underestimation of blood glucose concentrations as detected for 3 of the 4 PBGMs used in the study could have a substantial impact on clinical decision making. Verification of blood glucose concentrations in ferrets with a laboratory analyzer is highly recommended.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To provide information about complication rates and the risk factors for complications with mandibulectomy and maxillectomy procedures in dogs.


459 client-owned dogs that underwent a mandibulectomy or maxillectomy between January 1, 2007, and January 1, 2018.


Inclusion criteria included a complete medical record that contained an anesthesia record, surgical report, available histopathology results, and results of CBC and serum biochemical analysis before surgery. A minimum follow-up of 90 days after surgery was required.


271 complications occurred in 171 of 459 (37.3%) dogs. Eighteen complications were not given a severity description. Of the remaining 253 complications, most were considered minor (157/253 [62.1%]). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that only increased surgical time had a significant (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.54) association with the occurrence of ≥ 1 complication. For each additional hour of surgery, the odds of complications increased by 36%. Preoperative radiation therapy or chemotherapy increased the odds of incisional dehiscence or oral fistula formation (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.3 to 7.2). Additionally, undergoing maxillectomy, compared with mandibulectomy, increased the odds of incisional dehiscence or oral fistula formation (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.1). Two hundred forty-four of 271 (90.0%) complications occurred in the perioperative period (0 to 3 months after surgery).


Compared with mandibulectomy, performing maxillectomy increased the risk for incisional dehiscence or oral fistula formation. Mandibulectomy and maxillectomy had a moderate risk for a complication.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association