OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency of malignancy and survival rates of dogs that underwent splenectomy for incidentally detected nonruptured splenic masses or nodules.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 105 client-owned dogs.
PROCEDURES Medical records of dogs that underwent splenectomy at a veterinary teaching hospital between 2009 and 2013 were examined to identify patients with incidentally detected nonruptured splenic masses or nodules without associated hemoperitoneum. Only dogs with histologically confirmed diagnoses were included. Information regarding signalment, preoperative diagnostic tests, perioperative blood product transfusions, splenic mass diameter, histologic findings, adjunctive treatments, and survival time was collected and analyzed.
RESULTS 74 of 105 (70.5%) patients had benign splenic lesions and 31 (29.5%) had malignant neoplasia, most commonly hemangiosarcoma (18/31 [58%]). The hazard of death decreased as preoperative PCV increased; histopathologic diagnosis of malignant neoplasia was significantly associated with an increased hazard of death. Median life expectancy of dogs with benign and malignant lesions was 436 and 110 days, respectively; 41 of 74 patients with benign lesions and 3 of 31 patients with malignant neoplasia were still alive at study conclusion. Median life expectancy of dogs with hemangiosarcoma was 132 days; only 7 of these 18 dogs received any adjunctive chemotherapeutic treatments.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Incidentally found, nonruptured splenic masses or nodules without associated hemoperitoneum were most commonly benign. Results suggested that life expectancy for these dogs with incidentally detected benign or malignant splenic lesions that received prompt intervention was better than has previously been reported for other studied populations.
Objective—To report the complication rate for a commonly performed procedure (lateral fabellotibial suture [LFS]) used in the treatment of dogs with cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) injury.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—305 dogs evaluated for 363 incidents of CCL injury from January 1997 through December 2005 and treated with LFS.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on breed, sex, age, body weight, clinical history, duration of surgery and anesthesia, primary surgeon, percentage of ligament tear, condition of medial meniscus, unilateral versus bilateral disease, implant material, duration of follow-up, and perioperative and postoperative complications.
Results—363 LFS procedures met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Complications (n = 65) were recorded for 63 of the 363 (17.4%) surgical procedures. Multiple complications developed in 2 dogs. In 26 (7.2%) dogs, a second surgery was required to manage the complications. Breed, side on which surgery was performed, implant material, percentage ligament tear, meniscal condition and treatment, bandage use, perioperative antimicrobial use, and experience of surgeon did not influence the complication rate. Factors significantly associated with a higher rate of complications were high body weight and young age of dog at the time of surgery.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—LFS is associated with a lower perioperative and postoperative complication rate than has been reported for other surgical procedures to repair CCL injury. Heavier and younger dogs had more complications. Complication rate must be considered when choosing a surgical treatment for dogs with CCL injury.
Objective—To evaluate the clinical use of a self-ligating loop (SLL) for partial or complete liver lobectomy in a variety of companion animal species.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—22 dogs, 2 cats, 4 rabbits, and 1 ferret with partial or complete liver lobectomy performed with an SLL.
Procedures—Medical records of companion animal patients that underwent partial or complete liver lobectomy with an SLL between 2009 and 2012 at the Angell Animal Medical Center were reviewed, and signalment, intraoperative and postoperative complications, histologic diagnosis, hospital discharge (yes or no), time to hospital discharge, and short-term survival rate were recorded. Follow-up information was obtained through evaluation of medical records.
Results—28 of 29 (97%) patients were discharged from the hospital and survived at least 5 days after discharge. Of the 29 patients, 3 underwent 2 liver lobectomies. During 4 of 32 (12.5%) lobectomies, mild intraoperative bleeding occurred on the cut surface of the liver after transection. No transection performed with ≥ 2 SLLs resulted in notable intraoperative bleeding. One of 29 (3.4%) patients had evidence of postoperative hemoabdomen, which was successfully treated with a single packed RBC transfusion. Expansion of the SLL diameter from 8 to 15 cm was accomplished to allow for resection of larger masses.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of an SLL for partial or complete liver lobectomy in a variety of companion animal species was a safe technique and was associated with low morbidity and mortality rates. Expansion of the ligature loop diameter and use of multiple SLLs may be necessary for larger lobectomies.
Objective—To evaluate whether dogs undergoing splenectomy had an increased risk of gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV), compared with a control group of dogs undergoing enterotomy.
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—219 dogs that underwent splenectomy for reasons other than splenic torsion (splenectomy group; n = 172) or enterotomy (control group; 47) without concurrent gastropexy.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on signalment, date of surgery, durations of surgery and anesthesia, reason for splenectomy, histopathologic findings (if applicable), whether gastropexy was performed, duration of follow-up, and date of death (if applicable). Follow-up information, including occurrence of GDV, was obtained via medical records review and a written client questionnaire.
Results—Reasons for splenectomy included splenic neoplasia, nonneoplastic masses, infarction, traumatic injury, and adhesions to a gossypiboma. Incidence of GDV following surgery was not significantly different between dogs of the splenectomy (14/172 [8.1 %]) and control (3/47 [6.4%]) groups. Median time to GDV for the 17 affected dogs was 352 days (range, 12 to 2,368 days) after surgery. Among dogs that underwent splenectomy, sexually intact males had a significantly higher incidence of GDV (4/16) than did castrated males and sexually intact or spayed females (10/156). Incidence of GDV among sexually intact male dogs did not differ between groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results did not support a recommendation for routine use of prophylactic gastropexy in dogs at the time of splenectomy. Other patient-specific risk factors should be assessed prior to recommending this procedure.
To determine the prevalence of malignancy in masses from the mammary gland region of dogs with single or multiple masses.
95 female dogs from which mammary gland masses had been excised.
Medical records of all female dogs from which mammary gland tissue was submitted to the Angell Animal Medical Center Pathology Department from 2009 through 2014 were reviewed. For each dog, data were obtained on breed, body weight, age, reproductive status, and number, location, and histologic classification of masses. The prevalence of malignancy was compared between dogs with single versus multiple masses and among the 5 pairs of mammary glands. Dogs with single versus multiple masses were also compared with respect to age and reproductive status.
Among 161 evaluated masses, 137 (85%) were classified as benign or nonneoplastic and 24 (15%) as malignant. Five of 95 (5%) dogs had masses that were not of mammary gland origin. Age, reproductive status, and quantity of masses (single vs multiple) were not significantly associated with the prevalence of malignancy. The prevalence of malignancy in masses from the fourth (caudal abdominal) mammary gland was significantly lower than that in the other 4 mammary glands combined.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Dogs with multiple masses in the mammary gland region were not significantly more likely than dogs with single masses to have a malignancy, suggesting that these 2 groups could be managed similarly. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical relevance of the lower prevalence of malignancy in masses from the fourth mammary gland.
To provide information about complication rates and the risk factors for complications with mandibulectomy and maxillectomy procedures in dogs.
459 client-owned dogs that underwent a mandibulectomy or maxillectomy between January 1, 2007, and January 1, 2018.
Inclusion criteria included a complete medical record that contained an anesthesia record, surgical report, available histopathology results, and results of CBC and serum biochemical analysis before surgery. A minimum follow-up of 90 days after surgery was required.
271 complications occurred in 171 of 459 (37.3%) dogs. Eighteen complications were not given a severity description. Of the remaining 253 complications, most were considered minor (157/253 [62.1%]). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that only increased surgical time had a significant (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.54) association with the occurrence of ≥ 1 complication. For each additional hour of surgery, the odds of complications increased by 36%. Preoperative radiation therapy or chemotherapy increased the odds of incisional dehiscence or oral fistula formation (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.3 to 7.2). Additionally, undergoing maxillectomy, compared with mandibulectomy, increased the odds of incisional dehiscence or oral fistula formation (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.1). Two hundred forty-four of 271 (90.0%) complications occurred in the perioperative period (0 to 3 months after surgery).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Compared with mandibulectomy, performing maxillectomy increased the risk for incisional dehiscence or oral fistula formation. Mandibulectomy and maxillectomy had a moderate risk for a complication.