Objective—To evaluate the righting reflex after topical application of a sevoflurane jelly in cane toads (Bufo marinus).
Animals—8 cane toads.
Procedures—Toads were 6 to 8 months of age and weighed (mean ± SD) 142.0 ± 25.2 g. Sevoflurane jelly was applied to the dorsum of each toad at a dose of 25 μL/g in trial 1 and 37.5 μL/g in trial 2. Toads were placed in dorsal recumbency every 30 seconds until loss of the righting reflex. Jelly was then removed by rinsing the toads with tap water. Toads were then left undisturbed in dorsal recumbency until return of the righting reflex. Chamber sevoflurane concentration was measured to determine vaporization.
Results—6 of 8 toads in trial 1 and 8 of 8 toads in trial 2 lost the righting reflex. Mean ± SD time to loss of the reflex was 8.2 ± 1.3 minutes for trial 1 and 8.3 ± 0.9 minutes for trial 2; this difference was not significant. Mean ± SD time to return of the reflex was 25.6 ± 26.2 minutes for trial 1 and 84.4 ± 47.2 minutes for trial 2; this difference was significant. Chamber sevoflurane concentration did not change significantly, compared with baseline (time 0) concentration, at any time in trial 1; however, there was a significant change in chamber sevoflurane concentration from baseline (time 0) concentration in trial 2. Chamber sevoflurane concentrations were not significantly different between trial 1 and trial 2 at any time. Mean ± SD chamber sevoflurane concentration was 0.46 ± 0.2% for trial 1 and 0.57 ± 0.28% for trial 2.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Sevoflurane jelly applied topically at a dose of 37.5 μL/g induced a more reliable loss of righting reflex and longer recovery time than when applied at a dose of 25 μL/g in cane toads.
OBJECTIVE To report complication rates following elective arthroscopy in horses and determine whether postoperative complication rates are higher for outpatient procedures, compared with inpatient procedures.
DESIGN Retrospective cohort study.
ANIMALS 357 client-owned horses that had undergone 366 elective arthroscopic procedures between January 2008 and February 2015.
PROCEDURES Medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Data collected included signalment, travel time to the hospital, clinical signs, joints treated, lesions diagnosed, medications administered, anesthesia and surgery times, details of the procedure (including closure method and surgeons involved), and hospitalization status (inpatient or outpatient). Inpatients were horses that remained hospitalized overnight, and outpatients were horses that were discharged in the afternoon of the day of surgery. The collected data were analyzed along with follow-up information to identify factors associated with postoperative complications and potentially associated with hospitalization status.
RESULTS Data were collected on 366 elective arthroscopic procedures (outpatient, n = 168 [46%]; inpatient, 198 [54%]). Complications that occurred included bandage sores, catheter problems, colic, diarrhea, postoperative discomfort, esophageal impaction, fever, incisional drainage, postanesthetic myopathy, persistent synovitis, persistent lameness, septic arthritis, and osteochondral fragments not removed during the original surgery. None of these complications were associated with hospitalization status (outpatient vs inpatient). However, Standardbreds were overrepresented in the outpatient group, and anesthesia and surgery times were longer for the inpatient group.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that outpatient elective arthroscopy in healthy horses could be performed safely and without a higher risk of complications, com pared with similar procedures performed on an inpatient basis.
To determine factors associated with change in rectal temperature (RT) of dogs undergoing anesthesia.
In a prospective observational study, the RT of dogs undergoing anesthesia at 5 veterinary hospitals was recorded at the time of induction of anesthesia and at the time of recovery from anesthesia (ie, at the time of extubation). Demographic data, body condition score, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification, types of procedure performed and medications administered, duration of anesthesia, and use of heat support were also recorded. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine factors that were significantly associated with a decrease or an increase (or no change) in RT. Odds ratios were calculated for factors significantly associated with a decrease in RT.
Among the 507 dogs undergoing anesthesia, RT decreased in 89% (median decrease, −1.2°C [-2.2°F]; range, −0.1°C to −5.7°C [–0.2°F to −10.3°F]), increased in 9% (median increase, 0.65°C [1.2°F]; range, 0.1°C to 2.1°C [3.8°F]), and did not change in 2%. Factors that significantly predicted and increased the odds of a decrease in RT included lower weight, ASA classification > 2, surgery for orthopedic or neurologic disease, MRI procedures, use of an α2-adrenergic or μ-opioid receptor agonist, longer duration of anesthesia, and higher heat loss rate. Lack of μ-opioid receptor agonist use, shorter duration of anesthesia, and lower heat loss rate were significantly associated with an increase in RT.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Multiple factors that were associated with a decrease in RT in dogs undergoing anesthesia were identified. Knowledge of these factors may help identify dogs at greater risk of developing inadvertent perianesthetic hypothermia.
To compare measurements of left ventricular volume and function derived from 2-D transthoracic echocardiography (2DE), transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), and the ultrasound velocity dilution cardiac output method (UDCO) with those derived from cardiac MRI (cMRI) in healthy neonatal foals.
6 healthy 1-week-old Standardbred foals.
Foals were anesthetized and underwent 2DE, TEE, and cMRI; UDCO was performed simultaneously with 2DE. Images acquired by 2DE included the right parasternal 4-chamber (R4CH), left apical 4- and 2-chamber (biplane), and right parasternal short-axis M-mode (M-mode) views. The longitudinal 4-chamber view was obtained by TEE. Measurements assessed included left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), end-systolic volume (LVESV), ejection fraction, stroke volume (LVSV), cardiac output (CO), and cardiac index (CI). Bland-Altman analyses were used to compare measurements derived from biplane, R4CH, and M-mode images and UDCO with cMRI-derived measurements. Repeatability of measurements calculated by 3 independent reviewers was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient.
Compared with cMRI, all 2DE and TEE modalities underestimated LVEDV and LVESV and overestimated ejection fraction, CO, and CI. The LVSV was underestimated by the biplane, R4CH, and TEE modalities and overestimated by UDCO and M-mode methods. However, the R4CH-derived LVSV, CO, and CI were clinically comparable to cMRI-derived measures. Repeatability was good to excellent for measures derived from the biplane, R4CH, M-mode, UDCO, and cMRI methods and poor for TEE-derived measures.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
All assessed modalities yielded clinically acceptable measurements of LVEDV, LVESV, and function, but those measurements should not be used interchangeably when monitoring patient progress.
Objective—To determine the incidence of bacteremia, as detected by routine methods for bacterial culture of blood samples, following routine endoscopic biopsy of the stomach and duodenum in healthy research dogs and to determine whether treatment with omeprazole administration affected the incidence of bacteremia.
Animals—8 healthy purpose-bred research dogs.
Procedures—All dogs underwent gastroduodenoscopy with biopsy at 4 points: twice prior to treatment with omeprazole, once following 15 days of omeprazole treatment (20 mg, PO, q 12 h), and once 14 days after treatment ceased. Dogs had a mean ± SD body weight of 18.6 ± 2.0 kg. Blood samples were aseptically obtained at 3 points during each procedure (before, immediately following, and 24 hours after endoscopy), and routine aerobic and anaerobic bacterial culture of blood was performed.
Results—96 cultures were attempted for each culture method, yielding positive results of aerobic culture for 2 dogs at separate time points and no positive results of anaerobic culture.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Routine gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy in healthy dogs did not result in a detectable bacteremia in most dogs. Treatment with the gastric acid–suppressing medication omeprazole did not affect the incidence of bacteremia as detected via standard techniques.
Objective—To qualitatively describe lung CT images obtained from sedated healthy equine neonates (≤ 14 days of age), use quantitative analysis of CT images to characterize attenuation and distribution of gas and tissue volumes within the lungs, and identify differences between lung characteristics of foals ≤ 7 days of age and foals > 7 days of age.
Animals—10 Standardbred foals between 2.5 and 13 days of age.
Procedures—Foals were sedated with butorphanol, midazolam, and propofol and positioned in sternal recumbency for thoracic CT. Image analysis software was used to exclude lung from nonlung structures. Lung attenuation was measured in Hounsfield units (HU) for analysis of whole lung and regional changes in attenuation and lung gas and tissue components. Degree of lung attenuation was classified as follows: hyperinflated or emphysema, −1,000 to −901 HU; well aerated, −900 to −501 HU; poorly aerated, −500 to −101 HU; and nonaerated, > −100 HU.
Results—Qualitative evidence of an increase in lung attenuation and patchy alveolar patterns in the ventral lung region were more pronounced in foals ≤ 7 days of age than in older foals. Quantitative analysis revealed that mean ± SD lung attenuation was greater in foals ≤ 7 days of age (−442 ± 28 HU) than in foals > 7 days of age (−521 ± 24 HU). Lung aeration and gas volumes were lower than in other regions ventrally and in the mid lung region caudal to the heart.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Identified radiographic patterns and changes in attenuation were most consistent with atelectasis and appeared more severe in foals ≤ 7 days of age than in older neonatal foals. Recognition of these changes may have implications for accurate CT interpretation in sedated neonatal foals with pulmonary disease.
Objective—To assess the clinical differences between induction of anesthesia in ball pythons with intracardiac administration of propofol and induction with isoflurane in oxygen and to assess the histologic findings over time in hearts following intracardiac administration of propofol.
Procedures—Anesthesia was induced with intracardiac administration of propofol (10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb]) in 18 ball pythons and with 5% isoflurane in oxygen in 12 ball pythons. Induction time, time of anesthesia, and recovery time were recorded. Hearts from snakes receiving intracardiac administration of propofol were evaluated histologically 3, 7, 14, 30, and 60 days following propofol administration.
Results—Induction time with intracardiac administration of propofol was significantly shorter than induction time with 5% isoflurane in oxygen. No significant differences were found in total anesthesia time. Recovery following intracardiac administration of propofol was significantly longer than recovery following induction of anesthesia with isoflurane in oxygen. Heart tissue evaluated histologically at 3, 7, and 14 days following intracardiac administration of propofol had mild inflammatory changes, and no histopathologic lesions were seen 30 and 60 days following propofol administration.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intracardiac injection of propofol in snakes is safe and provides a rapid induction of anesthesia but leads to prolonged recovery, compared with that following induction with isoflurane. Histopathologic lesions in heart tissues following intracardiac injection of propofol were mild and resolved after 14 days.
To compare perceptions related to veterinary anesthesiologist involvement with anesthesia and pain management, benefits of a preanesthetic consultation (PAC) with an anesthesiologist, and quality of patient care between clients who did and did not participate in a PAC prior to their dogs’ elective orthopedic surgery.
80 dog owners.
Owners of dogs undergoing elective stifle joint surgery participated in the study. Participants were randomly assigned to PAC and control groups (n = 40 participants/group). The PAC group participated in a PAC with an anesthesiologist and completed a written survey (12 items with Likert-type response options). The control group completed a similar survey (identical except for 2 statements related to the PAC experience) without participating in a PAC. Results were compared between groups by statistical methods.
The proportion of clients in the PAC group who strongly agreed with the statements that a PAC was beneficial, their questions about the pet's anesthesia and pain management plan were answered, they knew who would perform anesthesia and what safeguards were in place, veterinary specialty hospitals should have an anesthesiologist on staff, they were willing to pay more to have an anesthesiologist supervise the anesthesia and pain management, and a PAC with an anesthesiologist should be standard of care in veterinary medicine was greater than that for control group clients. Responses to quality-of-care items did not differ between groups.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Participating in a PAC was associated with more positive perceptions of anesthesiologists and knowledge about the anesthesia plan. Further research with a validated survey instrument is needed to confirm these findings.