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Objective—To establish optimal immobilizing doses of medetomidine hydrochloride (MED) with ketamine hydrochloride (KET) for hand- and dart-administered injections in captive reindeer.

Animals—12 healthy 6- to 9-month-old reindeer ( Rangifer tarandus tarandus).

Procedure—An optimal dose was defined as a dose resulting in an induction time of 150 to 210 seconds, measured from the time of IM injection until recumbency. Initially, each stalled reindeer was immobilized by hand-administered injection. If the induction time was > 210 seconds, the dose was doubled for the next immobilization procedure. If it was < 150 seconds, the dose was halved for the next immobilization procedure. This iteration procedure was continued for each reindeer until an optimal dose was found. Later the reindeer was placed in a paddock and darted with its optimal dose as determined by hand-administered injection. Adjusting to a linear relationship between dose and induction time, optimal darting doses for each reindeer were predicted and later verified.

Results—The established mean optimal hand- and dart-administered doses were 0.10 mg of MED/kg of body mass with 0.50 mg of KET/kg, and 0.15 mg of MED/kg with 0.75 mg of KET/kg, producing mean induction times of 171 seconds and 215 seconds, respectively. The mean induction time after darting was 5 seconds greater than the upper limit of the predefined time interval.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The higher dose requirement of MED-KET administration outdoors, compared with indoors, was explained by factors inherent in the darting technique and the different confinements. The iteration and the prediction methods seem applicable for determination of optimal doses of MED-KET in reindeer. The iteration and the prediction procedures may be used to reduce the number of experimental animals in dose-response studies in other species. ( Am J Vet Res 2001;62:119–126)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To compare effects of intra-articular injection of 2 ml of 0.9% NaCl solution with rest alone for treatment of horses with traumatic arthritis.


38 Standardbred horses with moderate to severe lameness that resulted from traumatic arthritis.


Horses were stratified on the basis of number of affected joints. In each stratum, horses were allocated randomly to treatment groups (intra-articular injection of 2 ml of 0.9% NaCl solution vs rest only). Treatment was for a period of 3 weeks. Horses were inspected weekly with a final examination 2 to 4 weeks after completion of treatment.


Mean lameness index was significantly lower during the 3-week treatment period and the entire study period for the NaCl-injected group. A significant decrease in the lameness index during the first 3-week treatment period also was detected for the rest-only group; however, the lameness index increased significantly for this group during the follow-up period, and an overall significant decrease was not detected. Comparison of the lameness index curve indicated a difference in favor of NaCl injection, with a significant difference between the 2 groups at final examination. Nine horses became sound during treatment with rest only, but 6 relapsed before final examination. In the NaCl-injected group, 5 of 10 sound horses relapsed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Intra-articular injection of 2 ml of 0.9% NaCl solution was beneficial in horses with traumatic arthritis. Use of rest alone for a limited period was inadequate for treatment of young Standardbred horses with traumatic arthritis. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1117–1121)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate clinical effects and repeatability of clinical effects for an optimal immobilizing dose of a combination of medetomidine hydrochloride (MED) and ketamine hydrochloride (KET) in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus).

Animals—12 healthy 6- to 8-month old reindeer.

Procedure—Each reindeer was immobilized once with an initial dose (combination of 0.06 mg of MED/kg of body weight and 0.3 mg KET/kg) and twice with an optimal dose of MED-KET. Reversal was achieved with 5 mg of atipamezole/mg of MED injected 45 minutes after MED-KET administration. Observational variables were recorded. Oxygen saturation of arterial hemoglobin measured by pulse oximetry (SpO2), respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), and rectal temperature (RT) were recorded 10, 25, and 40 minutes after immobilization.

Results—Mean time to first sign of sedation and time until a recumbent animal lifted its head were significantly reduced for reindeer given the optimal dose, compared with the initial dose. Mean SpO2 remained > 90% during initial immobilization; this value was significantly lower for the optimal dose, but increased during immobilization from 85 to 89%. At all doses, RR increased significantly throughout the recorded period; however, RT and HR were constant. Except for time until reindeer stood, all time variables, SpO2, RR, RT, and HR were repeatable.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Immobilization of captive reindeer achieved by use of the optimal dose established here is clinically acceptable, although SpO2 should be carefully monitored. Administration of the optimal dose produced the same clinical effect during repeated immobilization of the same reindeer. (Am J Vet Res2001;62:406–413).

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare 2 methods for estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), study the effects of age and body size on GFR estimates, and provide a reference range for estimated GFR in clinically normal cats.

Animals—57 cats.

Procedures—In each cat, GFR was estimated via plasma clearance of iohexol and creatinine. Results of a 1-compartmental model (CL1comp) were calibrated to a trapezoidal method estimate (CLtrap) by use of a correction formula applicable to dogs or humans and standardized to body weight; for iohexol clearance, data were also standardized to extracellular fluid volume (ECFV). For all 57 cats, method comparison was performed via agreement analysis. Reference ranges for GFR derived by the different methods were established by use of data from a subset of 51 cats after exclusion of 6 cats that were azotemic, Birman, or both.

Results—In 57 cats, mean CLtrap of creatinine was 0.29 mL/min/kg (13%) higher than CLtrap of iohexol. In 51 nonazotemic cats, mean CLtrap was 2.26 mL/min/kg for iohexol (reference range, 1.02 to 3.50 mL/min/kg) and 2.55 mL/min/kg for creatinine (reference range, 1.27 to 3.83 mL/min/kg). Values of GFR/kg or GFR standardized to liters of ECFV did not decrease with increasing age. A negative linear relationship was detected between body weight and estimated GFR/kg or GFR standardized to liters of ECFV.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Reference ranges for estimated GFR via plasma clearance of iohexol and creatinine should facilitate early detection of impaired renal function in cats, although body weight should be taken into account.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research