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To determine if photobiomodulation causes a premature release of liposomal bupivacaine (LB) suspensions.


A 25-kg mixed breed dog cadaver euthanized for reasons unrelated to this study.


In September 2022, a proximomedial tibial incision was made in a dog cadaver, and a tibial plateau leveling osteotomy plate was implanted. A stab incision was made one-half inch distal to the incision, and a tunnel to the plate was created prior to closure of the primary wound. A 3-cc anal sac catheter was advanced through the distal incision until the bulb rested against the face of the plate. Seven treatment groups of treatment power (watts) and total energy (joules/cm2) were defined as: A, 0.5 W, 2.0 J/cm2; B, 0.5 W, 4.0 J/cm2; C, 0.5 W, 6.0 J/cm2; D, 1.0 W, 2.0 J/cm2; E, 1.0 W, 4.0 J/cm2; F, 1.0 W, 6.0 J/cm2; and sham, 0.0 W, 0.0 J/cm2. Ten samples per group of 2 mL of LB were infused into a new catheter and treated percutaneously with a class 3b laser. All samples remained in the catheter for 12 seconds to reflect the longest treatment time. Post-treatment free bupivacaine concentrations were identified with high-performance liquid chromatography.


The median free bupivacaine concentration was reported as: sham, 1.89 mg/mL; A, 1.93 mg/mL; B, 2.01 mg/mL; C, 2.05 mg/mL; D, 1.92 mg/mL; E, 2.03 mg/mL; and F, 2.00 mg/mL. There were no differences in median free bupivacaine concentrations between groups (P = .988).


Concurrent LB and photobiomodulation are recommended during the postoperative period. The results of this proof-of-concept study suggest that concurrent use of LB and photobiomodulation may be safe, but in vivo studies at similar and stronger photobiomodulation settings are warranted.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research