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  • Author or Editor: Steven V. Radecki x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine regional seroprevalence estimates of Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgM and IgG in clinically ill cats throughout the United States.

Sample Population—Sera from 12,628 clinically ill, client-owned cats.

ProcedureToxoplasma gondii-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were detected by use of ELISAs. Sera from clinically ill cats previously submitted for T gondii antibody testing were sequentially selected from our serum bank and the sample submission paperwork reviewed. The country was divided into 12 geographic regions. Overall prevalence as well as prevalence for each region, age group, season, sex (male vs female), and breed (domestic shorthair vs other) was calculated. Data were analyzed by logistic regression analysis.

Results—Overall, 31.6% of the cats were seropositive for T gondii-specific IgM, IgG, or both. Percentage of cats seropositive for T gondii antibodies ranged from 16.1% (southwestern United States) to 43.5% (northeastern United States). As age increased, odds of positive T gondii antibody assay results (IgM alone, IgG alone, and any combination of IgM or IgG) increased. Males were more likely than females to be seropositive for T gondii antibodies (IgG alone and any combination of IgM or IgG). Domestic shorthair cats were more likely than other breeds to be seropositive for T gondii antibodies (IgM alone, IgG alone, and any combination of IgM or IgG).

Conclusions and Clinical RelevanceToxoplasma gondii-specific antibodies are common in serum samples of clinically ill cats from all regions of the United States. Seroprevalence increases as cats age and is higher in male and domestic shorthair cats, compared with females and other breeds. (Am J Vet Res 2005; 66:874–877)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether fenbendazole effectively eliminates Giardia organisms from chronically infected cats that have a concurrent Cryptosporidium parvum infection.

Animals—16 clinically normal cats.

Procedure—Eight cats with chronic concurrent Giardia and C parvum infections received fenbendazole (50 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) for 5 days (treatmentgroup cats). Feces from each cat were collected and processed 3 days weekly for 23 days after treatment. By use of an immunofluorescent assay for detection of Giardia lamblia cysts and C parvum oocysts, organism numbers were counted and scored. Fecal results from treatment-group cats were compared with those of 8 untreated cats with Giardia infection but no C parvum infection (control-group cats).

Results—Four of 8 treatment-group cats had consistently negative results for Giardia infection after treatment. These 4 cats had consistently positive results for C parvum oocysts prior to treatment and consistently negative results after treatment. One treatment -group cat had positive results for cysts on all fecal samples, and 3 treatment-group cats had 1 to 3 negative results and then resumed shedding large numbers of cysts; each of these cats had consistently positive results for C parvum oocysts. When compared with control-group cats, treatment-group cats shed less Giardia cysts during week 1 after treatment but not during week 2.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of fenbendazole decreases Giardia cyst shedding to less than detectable numbers in some cats. In our study, persistent C parvum infection may have been associated with failure of fenbendazole to eliminate Giardia infection. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1027–1029)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess efficacy of Giardia vaccination as a treatment for giardiasis in experimentally infected cats.

Design—Original study.

Animals—16 young-adult cats.

Procedure—Cats were experimentally infected by orogastric administration of Giardia cysts. On weeks 4, 6, and 10, cats in the treatment group (n = 8) were given Giardia vaccine SC. For the first 28 weeks after infection, 3 fecal samples from each cat were examined weekly for Giardia cysts, and cyst numbers were counted. Fecal consistency was scored daily for the duration of the study. Results from vaccinated and unvaccinated cats were compared by logistic regression.

Results—All cats became infected and were shedding Giardia cysts by the end of week 2. Throughout the study, diarrhea was rare and was mild and transient when it did occur. By week 28, 5 of 8 vaccinated cats and 7 of 8 control cats had patent Giardia infections. Magnitude of infection, based on number of fecal samples with cysts and number of cysts per sample, decreased progressively in both groups over time.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of 3 doses of a Giardia vaccine did not completely eliminate the organism from experimentally infected cats in the study period. Since clinical signs were minimal in both groups of cats, it could not be determined whether vaccination lessened severity of clinical disease. Results may have been negatively influenced by the large inoculation dose. Whether Giardia vaccination is an effective treatment for giardiasis in naturally infected cats remains to be determined. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:1548–1551)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare treatment with enrofloxacin and doxycycline with no treatment in cats experimentally infected with Haemobartonella felis.

Design—Prospective case-control study.

Animals—16 cats.

Procedure—Cats were inoculated with large-form H felis from a chronically infected donor. Cats were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: doxycycline (5 mg/kg [2.3 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h), low-dose enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h), high-dose enrofloxacin (10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h), and an untreated control group. Clinical signs, Hct, blood smears, and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay were used to monitor progression of the infection.

Results—All cats were confirmed to be infected with H felis via blood smear evaluations and PCR assay results. Treatment had no effect on Hct during the intratreatment period, but Hct values were significantly greater in the low-dose enrofloxacin group, compared with the control group, during the posttreatment period. During the intratreatment period, H felis organism counts per 1,000 RBC in the doxycycline treatment and the high-dose enrofloxacin treatment groups decreased at a significantly faster rate than those in the control group. In the posttreatment period, organism counts in the doxycycline treatment group and the low- and high-dose enrofloxacin groups decreased at significantly faster rates than counts in the control group. There was no significant effect of treatment on the number of positive PCR assay results. Two cats treated with enrofloxacin and 1 cat treated with doxycycline completely cleared the H felis organism despite presumed immunosuppression caused by glucocorticoids.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results support the hypothesis that enrofloxacin has anti-H felis effects. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:250–253)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the frequency of canine and feline emergency visits with respect to the lunar cycle.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—11,940 dogs and cats evaluated on an emergency basis during an 11-year period.

Procedures—Date of emergency visit, signalment, and chief complaint were retrieved from a medical records database. Emergency type was categorized as animal bite, cardiac arrest, epilepsy, ophthalmic, gastric dilatation-volvulus, trauma, multiple diseases, neoplasia, or toxicosis. The corresponding lunar phase was calculated and recorded as new moon, waxing crescent, first quarter, waxing gibbous, full moon, waning gibbous, last quarter, or waning crescent. The effect of lunar phase on the frequency of emergency visits was evaluated by calculating relative risk.

Results—Of 11,940 cases, 9,407 were canine and 2,533 were feline. Relative risk calculations identified a significant increase in emergencies for dogs and cats on fuller moon days (waxing gibbous to waning gibbous), compared with all other days.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that more emergency room visits occurred on fuller moon days for dogs and cats. It is unlikely that an attending clinician would notice the fractional increase in visits (0.59 and 0.13 more canine and feline visits, respectively) observed in this study at a facility with a low caseload. If the study is repeated at a facility with a robust emergency caseload, these results may lead to reorganization of staffing on fuller moon dates. A prospective study evaluating these findings under conditions of high caseload is necessary to determine the clinical relevance.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess the agreement between cardiac output (CO) measured by use of arterial pressure waveform analysis (PulseCO) and lithium dilution (LiDCO) in conscious dogs with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS).

Animals—14 dogs with naturally occurring SIRS.

Procedures—Pulse power analysis was performed on critically ill patients with a PulseCO monitor. All measurements were obtained with an indwelling arterial line and in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Intermittent measurements of CO were obtained with the LiDCO method to validate the PulseCO measurements at initial calibration (baseline; time 0) and at 4, 8, 16, and 24 hours. The 2 methods for measuring CO were compared by use of Bland-Altman analysis. An error rate for the limits of agreement between the 2 methods of < 30% was defined as being acceptable.

Results—Bland-Altman analysis did not indicate good agreement between measurements obtained by use of the PulseCO and LiDCO methods, despite no significant change in cardiac index (CI) over time as measured with the LiDCO method. The percentage error for the overall difference in CI values between the PulseCO and LiDCO measurements was 122%, which indicated that the PulseCO method was not an acceptable means of CO measurement when compared with the LiDCO method for this patient population.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Agreement between the PulseCO and LiDCO methods for measurement of CO was not acceptable at 4- and 8-hour intervals after calibration in conscious dogs with naturally occurring SIRS.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the efficacy of the fluoroquinolone pradofloxacin in the treatment of cats experimentally infected with Mycoplasma hemofelis.

Animals—23 young adult specific-pathogen–free cats.

Procedures—Cats were inoculated with M hemofelis from a chronically infected donor and assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: a doxycycline group, a low-dose–pradofloxacin group, a high-dose–pradofloxacin group, and an untreated control group. Treatment was initiated for 14 days when M hemofelis infection was detected via PCR assay and clinical signs of hemoplasmosis were present. Cats that had negative PCR assay results after treatment were administered a glucocorticoid and monitored via PCR assay for an additional 4 weeks.

Results—All cats yielded positive results for M hemofelis via conventional PCR and quantitative PCR assays and developed anemia. The low-dose–pradofloxacin group had significantly lower M hemofelis copy numbers than the doxycycline group. Six cats treated with pradofloxacin yielded negative results during treatment. Of those cats, 4 yielded negative conventional PCR assay results and all yielded negative quantitative PCR assay results for M hemofelis 1 month after administration of high-dose glucocorticoids.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pradofloxacin had anti–M hemofelis effects similar to those of doxycycline. In addition, pradofloxacin may be more effective at long-term M hemofelis organism clearance than doxycycline.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives—To describe clinical and laboratory findings associated with cats experimentally infected by inoculation with the 2 recognized genotypes of Hemobartonella felis (small variant, Hfsm; large variant, Hflg) and to determine the response of cats to treatment with azithromycin.

Animals—18 young adult domestic shorthair cats of both sexes.

Procedures—Cats were inoculated with H felis and monitored weekly, using CBC counts and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) designed to detect both genetic variants of H felis. Beginning 26 days after inoculation, 11 cats were administered azithromycin (15 mg/kg of body weight, PO, q 12 h, for 7 days).

Results—Inoculation resulted in coinfection with Hflg and Hfsm, and both variants were detected by PCR. Clinical abnormalities and anemia were most severe in Hflg- and dual-infected cats. Results of PCR and CBC were positive for H felis in 112/112 (100%) and 42/112 (37.5%), respectively, samples collected after inoculation. Administration of azithromycin had little effect on clinical variables, including anemia. All cats, regardless of treatment with azithromycin, had positive results for the PCR at the end of the study period.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In these cats, Hflg was more pathogenic than Hfsm, and coinfection with both variants was detected. Results of the PCR were superior to results of CBC for detecting infection with H felis. Azithromycin administered at the dose and duration reported here was not efficacious for the treatment of cats with hemobartonellosis. ( Am J Vet Res 2000;62:687–691)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To F whether vessels in the ocular fundus changed over the lifetime of Beagles and whether any changes were substantial enough to likely preclude positive identification of individual dogs by use of their retinal vascular patterns.

Animals—18 Beagles.

Procedures—Fundic photographs of both eyes of 18 Beagles taken at 1 or 3, 5, and 7 or 9 years of age were digitalized. Photographs were analyzed by use of 2 software programs. One was used to determine vessel numbers and widths and the other to determine the locations of the 3 largest vessels. Measurements were compared over time periods in the life of each dog. Only observations made at baseline (1 or 3 years of age) and again at 5 and 9 years of age were included in the statistical analysis, as these points were common to all dogs.

Results—No significant changes in numbers or locations of the blood vessels were detected over time. Widths of the vessels decreased significantly as the dogs aged.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The ocular fundus of Beagles changed over each dog's lifetime in that the retinal blood vessels became smaller but did not change in number or location. Results suggest that digitalized retinal images can likely be used to identify dogs over their lifetimes.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the diagnostic usefulness of semiquantitative and quantitative microalbuminuria assays and urine albumin-to-creatinine (UAC) ratio for detecting disease in cats.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—441 cats evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital.

Procedures—Urine samples from cats for which a complete medical record was available were included. Urine dipstick results, urine protein-to-creatinine ratios (cutoffs, 0.1 and 0.4), semiquantitative and quantitative microalbuminuria assay results (cutoff, 1 mg/dL), and UAC ratio values (cutoffs, 100 and 200 mg/g) were determined. Clinical diagnoses determined within 3 months of enrollment were recorded. Sensitivity and specificity were determined with disease status used as the standard. The influences of clinical diagnosis, sex, age, serum urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations, blood pressure, bacterial urine culture results, rectal temperature, pyuria, hematuria, and bacteriuria were evaluated by means of logistic regression.

Results—Of 441 cats that were eligible for inclusion, 40 were healthy and 401 had ≥ 1 disease. Results of logistic regression indicated that significant associations existed for age, presence of disease, presence of urinary tract disease, azotemia, hematuria, and pyuria and results of 1 or both of the microalbuminuria assays.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Microalbuminuria was associated with underlying disease. Sensitivity and specificity of the microalbuminuria assays for detection of systemic disease were superior to those of other tests. Microalbuminuria testing in conjunction with other screening procedures may increase identification of occult disease. A prospective study evaluating the predictive values of screening tests with and without microalbuminuria determination is needed to validate this recommendation.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association