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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—6 mares with pyometra secondary to transluminal cervical adhesions were examined.

Clinical Findings—Reasons for hospital admission included infertility (5 mares) and acute colic (1 mare). In the 6 mares, palpation per rectum of the reproductive tract revealed uterine distention, and transrectal ultrasonography confirmed the presence of echogenic fluid accumulation within the uterus. Cervical palpation during vaginal speculum examination indicated transluminal cervical adhesions. Three mares had severe distortion of the cervix as a result of diverticula and fibrosis. All 6 mares had a diagnosis of pyometra secondary to transluminal cervical adhesions.

Treatment and Outcome—Initially, the cervical adhesions were manually broken down to establish a patent cervical lumen to accommodate a uterine lavage catheter. A sample of the uterine content was obtained for bacteriologic culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and the uterus was lavaged with 0.05% povidone-iodine solution to remove the mucopurulent exudate. Once the uterus was evacuated, cervical surgery was performed in standing mares following sedation and caudal epidural anesthesia. A full-thickness wedge-shaped defect was made in the dorsolateral aspect of the cervix that created a permanent opening to the uterus. Postoperative care included applying topical medication to the cervix to reduce the recurrence of adhesion formation. All 6 mares had patent cervices and resolution of pyometra following surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cervical wedge resection enabled treatment of pyometra in mares with transluminal cervical adhesions, without the need for ovariohysterectomy. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;246:1354–1357)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine features of an early fetal loss (EFL) syndrome and evaluate potential risk factors for EFL in Thoroughbred broodmares on 4 farms in central Kentucky.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—288 pregnant broodmares.

Procedure—Year-2001 breeding records for 288 Thoroughbred broodmares were examined. Early fetal loss was defined as loss of a fetus that was viable at ≥ 40 days of gestation but was subsequently lost by 5 months of gestation.

Results—Overall 2001 EFL rate was 25% (73/288), median gestational age at time of fetal loss was 77 days, and median date of loss was May 7. Mares on 1 farm had significantly fewer fetal losses (5%) than mares on the other 3 farms (26 to 35%). Fetal losses were higher for maiden (42%) and barren (42%) mares than for foaling mares (18%). Fetal losses were greater in young than in older mares. Effects of broodmare farm, mare age, and reproductive status were all significant. Fetal losses were not associated with sire used for mating or stud farm.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Greatest risk for EFL occurred during the period from late April to May (ie, in mares bred during February through March). Higher incidence of EFL in maiden and barren mares and lower incidence of EFL on 1 farm suggest management or environmental influences may have affected outcome. Risk factors that should be investigated include environmental differences among farms and differences in management procedures used for lactating versus nonlactating mares. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1828–1830)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—6 geldings and 5 stallions were evaluated from January 2007 through April 2009 for the following conditions requiring phallectomy: chronic paraphimosis (n = 7), squamous cell carcinoma of the penis (3), and priapism (1).

Clinical Findings—None of the 7 horses with paraphimosis was able to retract the penis. Chronicity of the paraphimosis in 6 horses ranged from 2 weeks to 2 months and was unknown in the seventh horse. Horses with paraphimosis had been medically treated without success. The horse with priapism had developed the condition secondary to acepromazine administration 2 days prior to referral and was unsuccessfully treated once by intracavernosal administration of phenylephrine and irrigation of the cavernosal tissues prior to surgery. The 3 horses with squamous cell carcinoma of the penis had had the condition for 2 years and had been treated by repeated application of a cryogen or chemotherapeutic agent to the lesions.

Treatment and Outcome—All 11 horses underwent a partial phallectomy by means of a modified Vinsot technique. Modifications to the original technique included creation of a linear urethrostomy, alteration of the location and shape of the urethrostomy, application of a latex tourniquet, concurrent castration of stallions, and use of the procedure in standing horses. The procedure was technically easy to perform, well tolerated by the horses, and cosmetically acceptable to the owners, and had minimal postoperative complications. Long-term follow-up information was obtained from owners of 10 horses a median of 454 days after surgery; 2 owners reported mild urine scalding as the only adverse effect.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The modified Vinsot technique of partial phallectomy was effective and may be useful for horses that are unsuitable candidates for general anesthesia because of medical or owner financial constraints.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the incidence, ultrasonographic characteristics, and risk factors associated with embryonic development characterized by formation of an embryonic vesicle without an embryo in mares.

Design—Prevalence survey.

Animals—159 pregnant mares.

Procedure—From 1994 to 1998, mares between 11 and 40 days after ovulation with normal and abnormal embryonic development were examined ultrasonographically, and characteristics of each conceptus were recorded.

Results—The incidence of abnormal embryonic development in mares characterized by formation of an embryonic vesicle without an embryo was 7/159 (4.4%) during the 5 breeding seasons. Age and breed of mare or type of semen used did not differ for mares with normal and abnormal embryonic development. The percentage of mares in which the conceptus was undersized during ≥ 1 examination was significantly higher for mares with abnormal conceptuses (5/7), compared with mares with normal conceptuses (2/147; 1.4%). The percentage of examinations during which the conceptus was undersized was significantly higher for abnormal conceptuses (12/27; 44.4%), compared with normal conceptuses (4/448; 0.9%).

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—To diagnose an embryonic vesicle without an embryo, mares should be examined by use of transrectal ultrasonography on day 25 after ovulation. When an embryo cannot be identified at that time, mares should be reexamined at intervals of 1 to 3 days until day 30. Because undersized conceptuses are more likely to be abnormal, development of undersized conceptuses should be monitored closely. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:58–63)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Development of 1- to 2-cell in vivo fertilized equine embryos cultured with or without uterine tubal epithelial cells (utec) was studied. One- to 2-cell embryos (n = 26) were collected surgically from the uterine tubes of pony mares 1 day after ovulation. Four- to 8-cell embryos (n = 9) were collected 2 days after ovulation. Presumptive zygotes and 2-cell embryos were cultured with (n = 17) or without (n = 9) utec, and all 4- to 8-cell embryos were cocultured with utec as positive controls. Uterine tubal epithelial cells were used as cell suspensions within 2 weeks after initiation of cultures. Embryos were cultured to blastocysts or until the embryo had morphologic degeneration. Six presumptive zygotes failed to cleave in vitro. Development to blastocysts of 1-cell (4 of 11) and 2-cell (2 of 6) embryos cocultured with utec was similar. Coculture of 1- to 2-cell embryos with utec significantly (P = 0.05) improved development to blastocysts, compared with culture in medium alone (35 vs 0%, respectively); however, development to blastocysts of 1- to 2-cell embryos cocultured with utec was less (P < 0.025) than that of 4- to 8-cell embryos cocultured with utec (35 vs 89%, respectively).

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research