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  • Author or Editor: Steven P. Arnoczky x
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Abstract

Objective—To demonstrate myofibroblasts in the accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon (ie, distal check ligament) and deep digital flexor tendon of clinically normal foals.

Sample Population—Tissue specimens from 25 foals that were necropsied for reasons unrelated to this study and unrelated to musculoskeletal disease.

Procedure—The distal check ligament and deep digital flexor tendon of both forelimbs were examined histologically. Myofibroblasts were identified by immunohistochemical staining specific for alphasmooth muscle actin (α-SMA).

Results—Most of the cells in the distal check ligament and deep digital flexor tendon of all foals stained positive for α-SMA.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Myofibroblasts made up most of the cells in the distal check ligament and deep digital flexor tendon of clinically normal foals. These cells have contractile ability and therefore, may play a role in flexure contracture of these tendons. The ability of tetracycline to chelate calcium or decrease the expression of the contractile protein α-smooth muscle actin could inhibit the myofibroblasts' ability to contract, thus providing a rationale for tetracycline administration as a treatment of distal interphalangeal joint flexor deformity in foals. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:823–827)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To examine effects of an autologous platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) membrane for enhancing healing of a defect of the patellar tendon (PT) in dogs.

Animals—8 adult dogs.

Procedures—Defects were created in the central third of the PT in both hind limbs of each dog. An autologous PRF membrane was implanted in 1 defect/dog, and the contralateral defect was left empty. Dogs (n = 4/time period) were euthanized at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery, and tendon healing was assessed grossly and histologically via a semiquantitative scoring system. Cross-sectional area of the PTs was also compared.

Results—Both treated and control defects were filled with repair tissue by 4 weeks. There was no significant difference in the histologic quality of the repair tissue between control and PRF membrane—treated defects at either time point. At both time points, the cross-sectional area of PRF membrane—treated tendons was significantly greater (at least 2.5-fold as great), compared with that of sham-treated tendons. At 4 weeks, the repair tissue consisted of disorganized proliferative fibrovascular tissue originating predominantly from the fat pad. By 8 weeks, the tissue was less cellular and slightly more organized in both groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A PRF membrane did not enhance the rate or quality of tendon healing in PT defects. However, it did increase the amount of repair tissue within and surrounding the defect. These results suggested that a PRF membrane may not be indicated for augmenting the repair of acutely injured tendons that are otherwise healthy.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the microvascular anatomy of the suspensory ligament of the forelimb of horses.

Sample—17 cadaveric forelimbs from 9 adult horses with no known history of forelimb lameness.

Procedures—The median artery of the forelimb was cannulated proximal to the antebrachiocarpal joint and injected with contrast medium for CT evaluation of the gross vasculature (n = 2) or India ink to evaluate the microvasculature (12). Routine histologic evaluation was performed on an additional 3 forelimbs to confirm the microvascular anatomy.

Results—The vascular supply of the suspensory ligament of the forelimb originated from branches of the medial and lateral palmar and palmar metacarpal vessels as well as the proximal and distal deep palmar arches. An abundant, longitudinally oriented microvascular supply was evident throughout the length of the suspensory ligament without distinct variation among the proximal, midbody, and distal regions. The intraligamentous blood supply originated from a periligamentous vascular plexus that surrounded the suspensory ligament throughout its length. Histologic findings indicated the presence of a periligamentous connective tissue plexus, which contained vessels that penetrated and anastomosed with an extensive network of intraligamentous vessels throughout the length of the suspensory ligament.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The suspensory ligament of the equine forelimb had an abundant intraligamentous microvascular supply throughout its entire length. The absence of an obvious hypovascular area suggested that regional variations in healing rates of the suspensory ligament are not associated with the microvascular anatomy.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate changes in strain patterns in normal equine hooves following 4-point trimming, using photoelastic stress analysis.

Sample Population—15 equine front limbs with normal hoof configuration.

Procedure—Limbs were disarticulated at the carpometacarpal joint. Weight-bearing surfaces of each hoof were trimmed level to ensure 100% ground contact. Hoof walls were coated with a custom-made strain-sensitive plastic, and limbs were loaded to a third of body weight. Using a polariscope, strain distribution, magnitudes, and directions were evaluated in level hooves as well as before and after standardized 4-point trimming. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare strain magnitudes and directions before and after trimming.

Results—In leveled specimens, strain fields were symmetrically distributed above the heels and at quarter-toe junctions along a line between the middle and distal thirds of the hoof wall. After 4-point trimming, strain epicenters localized above the contact points, whereas strain magnitudes significantly increased by approximately 50%. Decreasing contact area by 50% resulted in an additional significant increase (32%) in strain magnitude. Trimming did not have a significant effect on strain orientations.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—This study documents that 4-point trimming results in strain concentration above the hoof contact points and that strain magnitude is dependent on contact area. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:467–473)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To describe the effect of systemically administered oxytetracycline on the viscoelastic properties of rat tail tendon fascicles (TTfs) to provide a mechanistic rationale for pharmacological treatment of flexural limb deformities in foals.

Sample—TTfs from ten 1-month-old and ten 6-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats.

Procedures—5 rats in each age group were administered oxytetracycline (50 mg/kg, IP, q 24 h) for 4 days. The remaining 5 rats in each age group served as untreated controls. Five days after initiation of oxytetracycline treatment, TTfs were collected and their viscoelastic properties were evaluated via a stress-relaxation protocol. Maximum modulus and equilibrium modulus were compared via a 2-way ANOVA. Collagen fibril size, density, and orientation in TTfs were compared between treated and control rats.

Results—Viscoelastic properties were significantly decreased in TTfs from 1-month-old oxytetracycline-treated rats, compared with those in TTfs from 1-month-old control rats. Oxytetracycline had no effect on the viscoelastic properties of TTfs from 6-month-old rats. Collagen fibril size, density, and orientation in TTfs from 1-month-old rats did not differ between oxytetracycline-treated and control rats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results confirmed that systemically administered oxytetracycline decreased the viscoelastic properties of TTfs from 1-month-old rats but not those of TTfs from 6-month-old rats. The decrease in viscoelastic properties associated with oxytetracycline treatment does not appear to be caused by altered collagen fibril diameter or organization. The age-dependent effect of oxytetracycline on the viscoelastic properties of tendons may be related to its effect on the maturation of the extracellular matrix of developing tendons.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives—To compare virucidal effects and bone incorporation properties of cortical bone allografts transplanted into specific-pathogen-free (SPF) cats. Allografts consisted of untreated bone from a SPF cat (negative-control group) and bone from 5 FeLV-infected cats that was subjected to sterilization with ethylene oxide (ETO), preservation with glycerol, or no treatment (positive-control group).

Sample Population—Bones from the aforementioned groups and twenty 8-week-old SPF cats (5 cats/group) implanted with an allograft from 1 of the aforementioned groups.

Procedure—After implantation, blood samples were collected weekly to monitor FeLV p27 antigen and antibody titers. Quantification of FeLV provirus was performed on blood samples at weeks 0, 4, and 8 and donor bone samples at time of implantation. Cats were euthanatized 8 weeks after transplantation, and graft sites were evaluated.

Results—All results for negative-control cats were negative. All ETO group cats had negative results for antigen and provirus in blood, whereas 1 cat had a low antibody titer. Although 3 ETO-treated allografts were positive for provirus, the DNA appeared denatured. One cat in the glycerol group had positive results for all tests in blood samples. All glycerol-preserved allografts were positive when tested for provirus. All results for positive-control group cats were positive. Differences in incorporation of bone grafts were not observed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Glycerol preservation of FeLV-infected bone allografts did not eliminate transmission of retrovirus to recipients. In contrast, ETO sterilization appeared to denature DNA and prevent infection. Treatments did not affect incorporation of bone grafts in young cats. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:665–671)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of oxytetracycline on matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) mRNA expression and collagen gel contraction by equine myofibroblasts in an effort to explain the mechanistic basis for the pharmacologic treatment of flexural deformities in foals.

Sample Population—Cultured myofibroblasts from the accessory ligament (distal check ligament) of 6 foals.

Procedure—Collagen gel scaffolds seeded with equine myofibroblasts were cultured in individual culture dishes containing complete media (Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium with 10% fetal bovine serum) and oxytetracycline (0, 12.5, 25, or 75 µg/mL) for 48 hours. After 24 hours, the gels were released from the bottom of the culture plate and allowed to contract. Photographs were taken at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours after release to assess the degree of collagen gel contraction. Additional gels were harvested at 2 hours after release for RNA isolation and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assessment of the degree of MMP-1 mRNA expression.

Results—Oxytetracycline induced a dose-dependent inhibition of collagen gel contraction by equine myofibroblasts. Oxytetracycline also induced a dose-dependent decrease in MMP-1 mRNA expression by equine myofibroblasts.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study indicate that oxytetracycline inhibits tractional structuring of collagen fibrils by equine myofibroblasts through an MMP-1 mediated mechanism. In young foals, oxytetracycline administration may make the developing ligaments and tendons more susceptible to elongation during normal weight-bearing. Inhibition of normal collagen organization may provide the mechanistic explanation for the results seen following the pharmacologic treatment of flexural deformities in foals by oxytetracycline administration. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:491–496)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research