Objective—To objectively evaluate the effect of transecting
the tendon of the biceps brachii muscle
(BBT), tendon of the infraspinatus muscle (IFS), or
medial glenohumeral ligament (MGHL) on shoulder
joint stability in canine cadavers.
Sample Population—81 forelimbs from mature dogs.
Procedure—Cadaver forelimbs were placed in a testing
frame and axially preloaded with 4 kg of weight.
Shoulder joint stability was tested in neutral joint position,
flexion, and extension before and after transection
of the BBT (n = 37), IFS (37), or MGHL (7).
Humeral translation relative to the glenoid was
induced by applying a 3-kg load in each of 3 directions
(cranial, lateral, and medial) and quantitatively measured
by use of an electromagnetic motion tracking
system. Peak translational data were compared in
each joint position before and after transection of the
BBT, IFS, or MGHL.
Results—When tested in neutral position, the cranial,
lateral, and medial translation of the humerus was significantly
increased after BBT transection. In the flexed
position, translation of the humerus in the cranial and
lateral directions was significantly increased after BBT
transection. In the extended position, the medial translation
of the humerus was significantly increased after
BBT transection. Complete medial luxation of all humeral
heads occurred following transection of the MGHL.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The BBT contributes
to passive shoulder joint stability in dogs, particularly
in the neutral and flexed positions. It also provides
medial stability during shoulder joint extension.
Complete luxation of the joint occurs when the MGHL
is transected. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1216–1222)
Objective—To evaluate the effects of a pico-tesla
electromagnetic field (PTEF) on healing of sutured
and open skin wounds and clinicopathologic variables
Animals—64 male Fischer-344 rats.
Procedure—An incision made in the dorsal aspect of
the neck was sutured (n = 32) or left open to heal (32).
In each group, 16 rats were not PTEF-treated (controls).
Wound treatment consisted of exposure to a
PTEF once daily. Rats in each group were euthanatized
at days 2, 4, 7, and 14. Wounds were evaluated
via tensiometry (sutured wounds), digital planimetry
(open wounds), laser Doppler perfusion imaging, bacteriologic
culture, and histologic examination. Blood
samples were collected from all rats for analysis.
Results—At day 14, sutured wounds in PTEF-treated
rats were stronger (ultimate stress) and tougher
(strain energy) than were sutured wounds in control
rats. Open wounds in PTEF-treated rats contracted
more quickly at days 2 and 4 than did those in control
rats. Compared with control wounds, histologic
changes (indicative of improved healing) in sutured
and open wounds in PTEF-treated rats were detected
as early as day 4. Laser Doppler perfusion measurements,
results of CBCs, serum biochemical analyses,
and bacteriologic cultures were not different between
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Exposure to
the PTEF caused no adverse effects on clinicopathologic,
histologic, or bacteriologic variables tested in
this study. It appears that PTEF is a safe form of adjuvant
treatment for wounds and improves strength of
sutured wounds and speeds contraction of open
wounds. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:845–854)
To determine whether passage of whole blood through a microaggregate filter by use of a syringe pump would damage canine erythrocytes.
Blood samples obtained from 8 healthy client-owned dogs.
Whole blood was passed through a standard microaggregate filter by use of a syringe pump at 3 standard administration rates (12.5, 25, and 50 mL/h). Prefilter and postfilter blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of a simulated transfusion. Variables measured at each time point included erythrocyte osmotic fragility, mean corpuscular fragility, RBC count, hemoglobin concentration, RBC distribution width, and RBC morphology. In-line pressure when blood passed through the microaggregate filter was measured continuously throughout the simulated transfusion. After the simulated transfusion was completed, filters were visually analyzed by use of scanning electron microscopy.
Regardless of administration rate, there was no significant difference in mean corpuscular fragility, RBC count, hemoglobin concentration, or RBC distribution width between prefilter and postfilter samples. Additionally, there were no differences in in-line pressure during the simulated transfusion among administration rates. Echinocytes were the erythrocyte morphological abnormality most commonly observed at the end of the transfusion at administration rates of 12.5 and 25 mL/h.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested that regardless of the administration rate, the microaggregate filter did not alter fragility of canine RBCs, but may have altered the morphology. It appeared that the microaggregate filter would not contribute to substantial RBC damage for transfusions performed with a syringe pump.