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Summary

Pad grafts would be indicated in instances of severe paw trauma when there has been loss of the major weight-bearing pads (ie, metatarsal and metacarpal pads) as well as loss of the digital pads. A practical technique for replacing pad tissue on the remaining paw tissue could avert limb amputation for lack of weight-bearing tissue in the area.

Small segmental digital pad grafts were placed in granulation tissue beds in dogs. Although the grafts were from thick pad skin, they healed well. However, intervening wound areas did not become covered with the heavier keratinized epithelium of the pads. The thinner, more rapidly growing, less keratinized epithelium from the wound edges covered most of the wound.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

After removal of 1 metatarsal pad and formation of a granulation tissue bed, free segmental 6- × 8-mm grafts from digital pads were sutured into recessed same-size recipient sites in the granulation tissue. In 5 dogs, the grafted area had been denervated by excision of a segment of the tibial nerve at the level of the tarsus. The grafted area was not denervated in the remaining 5 dogs. In both groups of dogs, the grafts placed around the periphery of the wound healed, blocked ingrowth of delicate epithelium from the surrounding skin, and provided a tough keratinized epithelium that covered the wound's center. As healing progressed, the grafts coalesced as the wounds contracted. Weight bearing resulted in graft expansion to provide functional weight-bearing tissue.

Dogs of the denervated group had clinical and histologic evidence of collateral sensory reinnervation of the denervated area. However, with the exception of 1 dog, results of sensory nerve action potential tests indicated that reinnervation may not have been by way of regeneration across the excisional gap in the nerve.

Evaluation of reinnervation of the tibial autonomous zone in 2 additional dogs revealed clinical evidence that collateral reinnervation began between 19 and 28 days after nerve excision and progressed proximad to distad. Results of sensory nerve action potential tests indicated that reinnervation may not have been via regeneration across the excision site. Results of fluorescent tracer studies did not have positive findings regarding the route of collateral reinnervation.

Segmental paw pad grafts can be used effectively to provide weight-bearing tissue on a dog's limb. With local nerve damage on the distal portion of the limb, collateral innervation can grow into the area to reinnervate tissues, including pad grafts.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of intraincisional bioactive glass on healing of sutured skin wounds in dogs.

Animals—9 purpose-bred mature female Beagles.

Procedure—3 small matched bilateral (treated vs control) full-thickness truncal skin incisions were made and sutured. Treated wounds received intraincisional particulate bioactive glass prior to closure. Laser Doppler perfusion imaging was used to assess percentage change in tissue perfusion 3 and 5 days after incision on 1 set of 2 matched wounds, and skin and subcutaneous tissue-cutaneous trunci breaking strength were assessed at 5 days. The other 2 sets of wounds were used for histologic evaluation at 5 and 21 days, respectively.

Results—Subjective signs of gross inflammatory reaction were not detected in treated or control wounds. At 5 days, median subcutaneous tissuecutaneous trunci breaking strength was significantly higher in treated wounds than in control wounds (188.75 vs 75.00 g). At 5 days, median scores were significantly higher for neutrophils (1 vs 0), macrophages (2 vs 1), and necrosis (1 vs 0) for treated wounds than for control wounds. At 21 days, median macrophage scores were significantly higher for treated wounds than for control wounds (2 vs1).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Bioactive glass in soft tissues does not cause a gross inflammatory reaction but causes an increase in histologic signs of inflammation, which decreases with time. Bioactive glass has potential for increasing tissue strength. Increased subcutaneous breaking strength could be beneficial in treating wounds in which early healing strength is needed. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1149–1153)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of a hydrolyzed bovine collagen dressing (HBCD) on healing of open wounds in healthy dogs.

Animals—9 female Beagles.

Procedures—2 full-thickness skin wounds were made bilaterally on the trunk of each dog. Wounds on 1 side were treated with powdered HBCD covered with a semiocclusive nonadherent bandage. Wounds on the other side (control wounds) were covered with a semiocclusive nonadherent bandage only. Wound healing was subjectively assessed, and percentage increase in tissue perfusion was assessed by use of laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI). Planimetry was performed to determine the percentages of contraction, epithelialization, and total wound healing. Biopsy specimens were examined microscopically to evaluate histologic changes.

Results—The HBCD did not induce a strong inflammatory reaction, as reflected by results of LDPI and histologic examination. Moreover, HBCD appeared hydrophilic and provided an environment to keep wounds clean and enhance early epithelialization. After treatment for 7 days, treated wounds had a significantly greater percentage of epithelialization than control wounds (12.13 vs 7.03%).

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—The hydrophilic property of HBCD may cleanse contaminated wounds with the body's homeostatic fluids and enhance early wound epithelialization. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1574–1578)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The effects of 3 occlusive dressing materials and a standard, nonadherent dressing material on healing of full-thickness skin defects were evaluated in dogs. Two wounds measuring 2 × 2 cm were created bilaterally (4 wounds/dog) on the dorsolateral aspect of the trunk of 12 Beagles. Wound treatments were evenly distributed between 4 sites, using a Latin square design. Treatments evaluated were: equine amnion (group A), biosynthetic hydrogel dressing (group B), transparent polyethylene sheeting (group T), and a semiocclusive rayon/polyethylene, nonadherent dressing (group C). Rates of contraction and epithelialization of group-A wounds were significantly greater than those of wounds of groups C, B, and T. On days 14, 21, and 28, mean percentage of wound contraction and mean percentage of total wound healed in group A exceeded those wounds in groups C, B, and T. On day 28, wounds in group A were significantly smaller than wounds in groups B and T, but were not significantly smaller than wounds in group C. All wounds in group A achieved 100% healing during the 28-day study period. Mean time for complete healing of group-A wounds was 21 days. The percentages of wounds completely healed by day 28 for groups B, C, and T were 25, 67, and 25%, respectively. Results indicate that use of equine amnion as an occlusive biological dressing on full-thickness wounds in dogs increases rate of healing.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Three configurations of cast padding and no cast padding were evaluated for their effects on skin in dogs. Padding was placed over bony prominences, between bony prominences, and over both areas for full-length padding under short-limb walking casts applied to 1 pelvic limb of Greyhounds. Evaluations were performed by pressure measurement over the calcaneal tuberosity, measurement of skin thromboxane B2 (TxB2) concentrations in skin over bony prominences, and measurement of plasma TXB2 concentrations.

Pressure studies were performed to evaluate cutaneous pressures related to no cast padding and various configurations of cast padding. Concentrations of TxB2 in the skin were determined to evaluate the skin inflammatory effects of no padding and the padding configurations, and TXB2 concentrations in the plasma were analyzed to ascertain whether they could be used to predict impending dermal pressure lesions.

Flexion of casted limbs revealed the greatest pressure over the calcaneal tuberosity with full-length cast padding. This was followed in decreasing order by no cast padding, padding over the prominences, and padding between the prominences.

Compared with all other bony prominences and padding configurations, TXB2 skin concentrations were significantly higher over the calcaneal tuberosity when no padding was used and over the lateral base of metatarsal V when padding was placed between the prominences. Over the calcaneal tuberosity, this was attributed to the sharpness of the prominence and its potential for movement. This high TxB2 concentration corresponded to the high pressure found in the pressure studies. Over the lateral base of metatarsal V, the increase in TxB2 concentration was related to the mass of the prominence and the tendency for localized padding to settle around the area.

Although the fully padded cast produced the highest pressure over the calcaneal tuberosity in the pressure measurement studies, this form of padding had the lowest TXB2 skin concentrations over this prominence in the 7- day TXB2 measurement studies. This was attributed to compacting of cast padding over time with resultant decrease in pressure over the bony prominence. There were no significant differences in plasma TxB2 concentrations before and after casting.

On the basis of cutaneous pressure measurements and or dermal or plasma TxB2 measurements after short-limb casts had been in place for 7 days, we concluded that absence of cast padding can cause dermal pressure injury over sharp prominences; in some areas, localized cast padding may settle around larger prominences, increase pressure, and potentiate dermal pressure injury; although pressure may be high after applying full-length cast padding, some compacting of the padding occurs, and this provides the best form of padding to prevent dermal pressure injury; and plasma TxB2 concentrations cannot be used to predict impending dermal pressure injury in a coaptation cast.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The purpose of the prospective study reported here was to evaluate surgical preparation of canine paws. Three combinations of surgical scrub solutions and antiseptic solutions were used: (1) 7.5% povidone-iodine scrub/10% povidone-iodine solution; (2) 2% chlorhexidine acetate scrub/2% chlorhexidine diacetate solution; and (3) tincture of green soap/70% isopropyl alcohol. The control was warm (38 to 42 C) tap water.

Four microbial colony counts were used to evaluate surgical preparation of 4 paws of 8 dogs. Specimens were obtained from the paws for a baseline microbial flora count. After surgical scrub was performed, additional specimens were obtained for bacteriologic culturing. Antiseptic was applied followed by collection of another specimen for bacteriologic culturing. A final specimen was obtained following a 24-hour period under a sterile occlusive bandage.

The 3 scrub solutions and the tap water control resulted in lower colony counts following scrubbing of the paws; however, only the 3 antiseptic solutions resulted in further colony count reduction after their application. Evaluation of residual colony counts isolated from specimens taken after a 24-hour period under a sterile occlusive bandage revealed chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine scrub/antiseptic combinations to be similar in antibacterial activity, with significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lower colony counts than those from specimens of paws treated with either the tincture of green soap/isopropyl alcohol combination or the tap water control. The lack of a significant difference between the bacterial counts immediately after surgical preparation with povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine and their respective 24-hour residual counts, indicated no particular advantage to surgical preparation and occlusive bandaging 24 hours prior to surgery. However, with their residual activity, either of these antiseptics under a bandage could help keep bacterial counts low after surgery in the absence of heavy wound drainage.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Objectives

To ascertain the effects of dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids on biochemical and histopathologic components of the inflammatory stage of wound healing.

Animals

30 purpose-bred Beagles.

Procedure

Dogs were allotted to 5 groups of 6. Each group was fed a unique dietary fatty acid ratio of omega-6 to n-3—diet A, 5.3:1; diet B, 10.4:1; diet C, 24.1:1; diet D, 51.6:1; and diet E, 95.8:1. Dogs were fed once daily for 12 weeks, then biopsy specimens were taken from 4-day-old wounds of each dog and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for: prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) metabolites, and ratios of omega-6 to n-3 fatty acids, arachidonic acid (AA) to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), adrenic acid to docosahexaenoic acid, and PGE2 to prostaglandin E3 (PGE3) metabolites.

Results

Qualitative analysis was carried out on AA, EPA, adrenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and the major metabolite from the PGE2 and PGE3 pathway. These molecules were further quantified with respect to diet to determine significant differences. By analysis of the AA-to-EPA ratio, diet A was different from diets D and E and diets B and C were different from diet E (P < 0.05). By analysis of the PGE2-to-PGE3 metabolite ratio, diet A was different from diet E (P < 0.05). Though biochemical analysis indicated dietary dependence, histopathologic data indicated no significant difference with respect to diet groups.

Conclusion

The biochemical component of the inflammatory stage of wound healing can be manipulated by diet.

Clinical Relevance

Omega-3 fatty acid-enriched diets can be used to control inflammation associated with dermatologic conditions. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:859–863)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate effects of treatment with a pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on healing of open and sutured wounds, clinicopathologic variables, and CNS activity of dogs.

Animals

12 adult female Beagles.

Procedure

Open and sutured wounds were created in the skin of the trunk of the dogs. Dogs were divided into 2 groups. One group received PEMF treatment and 1 group served as untreated (control) dogs. The PEMF-treated dogs received treatment twice a day starting the day before surgery and lasting through day 21 after surgery. Wounds were evaluated by use of tensiometry, planimetry, laser Doppler perfusion imaging, and histologic examination. Clinicopathologic variables and electroencephalographic tracings were also evaluated.

Results

Use of PEMF treatment resulted in significantly enhanced epithelialization of open wounds 10 and 15 days after surgery. Five days after surgery, wounds of control dogs had a negative value for wound contraction, whereas PEMF-treated wounds had a positive value. The PEMF treatment did not cause significant changes in short-term planimetric, perfusion, tensiometric, histologic, clinicopathologic, or electroencephalographic results.

Conclusions

The PEMF treatment enhanced wound epithelialization in open cutaneous wounds and provided indications of early contraction without significant short-term changes in other variables. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1177-1181)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To ascertain the effects of locally injected immunostimulant and tripeptide-copper complex (TCC) on improving healing of pad wounds.

Design

Wounds in pads of large dogs were injected with either medication or physiologic saline solution (controls). Healing was evaluated.

Animals

12 mature English Pointers.

Procedure

Full-thickness 6 × 8-mm wounds in metatarsal and third and fourth digital pads were injected with immunostimulant or TCC at 0, 3, and 6 days after wounding. Wounds on control dogs were injected with physiologic saline solution. Using planimetric measurements at 0, 3, 6, 14, and 21 days, rates of healing were evaluated. Biopsy of the digital pad wounds at 3, 6, and 14 days was used to evaluate collagen content by hydroxyproline analysis. Biopsy specimens were also evaluated for type-I and type-III collagen, using Sirius red differential staining.

Results

Effect on healing rate and hydroxyproline content was best during the first week for immunostimulant. Immunostimulant- and TCC-injected wounds had more type-I collagen than did controls at 6 days; TCC-injected wounds had the most type-I collagen. At 14 days, the amount of type-I collagen in TCC-injected wounds was significantly greater than that in other wounds.

Conclusions

Tested medications had positive effects on healing of pad wounds.

Clinical Relevance

Intralesional injection of medications helps ensure their presence for enhancement of wound healing. The benefit could be lost with topical use in a bandage if the bandage is lost or becomes wet.(Am J Vet Res 1996;57:394-399)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research