Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics of DL-α-lipoic acid in dogs when administered at 3 dosages via 3 methods of delivery.
Animals—27 clinically normal Beagles.
Procedures—In a 3 × 3 factorial Latin square design, 3 dosages (2.5, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg) of DL-α-lipoic acid were administered orally in a capsule form and provided without a meal, in a capsule form and provided with a meal, and as an ingredient included in an extruded dog food. Food was withheld for 12 hours prior to DL-α-lipoic acid administration. Blood samples were collected before (0 minutes) and at 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 minutes after administration. Plasma concentrations of DL-α-lipoic acid were determined via high-performance liquid chromatography. A generalized linear models procedure was used to evaluate the effects of method of delivery and dosage. Noncompartmental analysis was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters of DL-α-lipoic acid. Nonparametric tests were used to detect significant differences between pharmacokinetic parameters among treatment groups.
Results—A significant effect of dosage was observed regardless of delivery method. Method of delivery also significantly affected plasma concentrations of DL-α-lipoic acid, with extruded foods resulting in lowest concentration for each dosage administered. Maximum plasma concentration was significantly affected by method of delivery at each dosage administered. Other significant changes in pharmacokinetic parameters were variable and dependent on dosage and method of delivery.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Values for pharmacokinetic parameters of orally administered DL-α-lipoic acid may differ significantly when there are changes in dosage, method of administration, and fed status.
Objective—To assess effects of foods fortified with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)–rich fish oil on cognitive, memory, psychomotor, immunologic, and retinal function and other measures of development in healthy puppies.
Animals—48 Beagle puppies.
Procedures—Puppies were assigned to 3 groups after weaning (n = 16/group) and received 1 of 3 foods (low-DHA, moderate-DHA, or high-DHA food) as their sole source of nutrition until 1 year of age. Visual discrimination learning and memory tasks, psychomotor performance tasks, and physiologic tests including blood and serum analysis, electroretinography, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry were performed at various time points. Anti-rabies virus antibody titers were evaluated 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after vaccination at 16 weeks of age.
Results—Foods had similar proximate analysis results but varied in concentration of DHA from fish oil; the high-DHA food also contained higher concentrations of vitamin E, taurine, choline, and l-carnitine than did other foods. The high-DHA group had significantly better results for reversal task learning, visual contrast discrimination, and early psychomotor performance in side-to-side navigation through an obstacle-containing maze than did the moderate-DHA and low-DHA groups. The high-DHA group had significantly higher anti-rabies antibody titers 1 and 2 weeks after vaccination than did other groups. Peak b-wave amplitudes during scotopic electroretinography were positively correlated with serum DHA concentrations at all evaluated time points.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dietary fortification with fish oils rich in DHA and possibly other nutrients implicated in neurocognitive development following weaning improved cognitive, memory, psychomotor, immunologic, and retinal functions in growing dogs.
Objective—To determine the prevalence of hypomagnesemia
and hypocalcemia in horses with surgical
Animals—35 horses with surgically managed colic.
Procedure—Serum concentrations of total magnesium
(tMg2+) and calcium (tCa2+), as well as ionized
magnesium (iMg2+) and calcium (iCa2+) were analyzed
before surgery and 1, 3, 5, and 7 days following
surgery. A lead-II ECG and pertinent clinical data were
also obtained at each time.
Results—Preoperative serum tMg2+ and iMg2+ concentrations
were below the reference range in 6
(17%) and 19 (54%) horses, respectively. Serum concentrations
of tCa2+ and iCa2+ were less than the reference
range in 20 (57%) and 30 (86%) horses before
surgery. Horses with strangulating lesions of the gastrointestinal
tract had significantly lower preoperative
serum concentrations of iMg2+ and iCa2+, as well as a
higher heart rate than horses with nonstrangulating
lesions. Horses that developed postoperative ileus
had significantly lower serum concentrations of iMg2+
after surgery. Serum concentrations of magnesium
and calcium (total and ionized) correlated significantly
with the PR, QRS, QT, and corrected QT (QTc) intervals.
Horses that were euthanatized at the time of
surgery (n = 7) had significantly lower preoperative
serum concentrations of iMg2+, compared with horses
that survived. Neither serum magnesium nor calcium
concentrations were predictors of hospitalization
time or survival.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hypomagnesemia
and hypocalcemia were common during
the perioperative period, particularly in horses with
strangulating intestinal lesions and ileus. Serum concentrations
of tMg2+ and tCa2+ were less sensitive
than iMg2+ and iCa2+ in detecting horses with hypomagnesemia
and hypocalcemia. ( Am J Vet Res