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- Author or Editor: Steven C. Loerch x
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Objective—To assess fecal and nasal shedding patterns of bovine torovirus (BoTV) in cattle at time of arrival and periodically throughout the first 21 days after arrival at a feedlot.
Procedure—Fecal and nasal-swab samples collected on days 0, 4, 14, and 21 after arrival were tested for BoTV, using ELISA. A subset of samples from calves testing positive and negative for BoTV was analyzed, using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Paired serum samples were collected on days 0 and 21 and tested for BoTV antibodies, using a hemagglutination inhibition assay.
Results—Overall rate of fecal shedding of BoTV was 21 of 57 (37%) by ELISA and 40 of 42 (95%) by RT-PCR with peak shedding on day 4. Diarrhea was more common in calves shedding BoTV than those not shedding the virus (odds ratio, 1.72). Overall rate of nasal shedding of BoTV was 15 of 57 (26%) by ELISA and 42 of 42 (100%) by RT-PCR, with peak shedding on day 0. Specificity of the RT-PCR product was confirmed by sequence analysis. Approximately 93% of the calves seroconverted to BoTV (> 4-fold increase in titer). Differences were not detected between calves shedding BoTV and nonshedders in relation to disease and treatments, perhaps because of the low number of cattle in the study.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This study confirmed BoTV infections in feedlot cattle, including BoTV antigen and viral RNA in nasal secretions, and the shedding pattern during the first 21 days after arrival in a feedlot. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:342–348).
Objective—To describe patterns of seroconversion to bovine coronavirus (BCV) and shedding of BCV from the respiratory tract in feedlot cattle.
Animals—1,074 calves in feedlots in Ohio, Texas, and Nebraska.
Procedure—Nasal swab specimens were obtained at time of arrival (day 0) and at various times during the initial 28 days after arrival at feedlots. Specimens were tested for BCV, using an antigen-capture ELISA. Serum samples were obtained at time of arrival and again 28 days after arrival; sera were analyzed for antibodies to BCV, using an antibody-detection ELISA.
Results—Samples from 12 groups of cattle entering 7 feedlots during a 3-year period revealed that 78 of 1,074 (7.3%) cattle were shedding BCV (range, 0 to 35.9% within specific groups). At time of arrival, 508 of 814 (62.4%) cattle had low (< 50) or undetectable BCV antibody titers. Seroconversion to BCV during the initial 28 days after arrival was detected in 473 of 814 (58%) cattle tested (range, 20.3 to 84.1% within specific groups). In cattle shedding BCV from the nasal passages, 49 of 68 (72.1%) seroconverted, and 472 of 746 (63.3%) cattle that were not shedding the virus seroconverted.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Bovine coronavirus can be detected in populations of feedlot cattle in the form of viral shedding as well as seroconversion to the virus. Although only a few cattle were shedding the virus at the time of arrival at a feedlot, most of the cattle seroconverted to BCV by 28 days after arrival. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1057–1061)
Objective—To assess the relationship between shedding of bovine coronavirus (BCV) via the respiratory tract and enteric routes and the association with weight gain in feedlot cattle.
Animals—56 crossbred steers.
Procedures—Paired fecal samples and nasal swab specimens were obtained and were tested for BCV, using antigen-capture ELISA. Paired serum samples obtained were tested for antibodies to BCV, using antibody-detection ELISA. Information was collected on weight gain, clinical signs, and treatments for enteric and respiratory tract disease during the study period.
Results—Number of samples positive for bovine respiratory coronavirus (BRCV) or bovine enteric coro navirus (BECV) was 37/224 (17%) and 48/223 (22%), respectively. Some cattle (25/46, 45%) shed BECV and BRCV. There were 25/29 (86%) cattle positive for BECV that shed BRCV, but only 1/27 (4%) cattle negative to BECV shed BRCV. Twenty-seven of 48 (56%) paired nasal swab specimens and fecal samples positive for BECV were positive for BRCV. In contrast, only 10/175 (6%) paired nasal swab specimens and fecal samples negative for BECV were positive for BRCV. Only shedding of BECV was associated with significantly reduced weight gain. Seroconversion to BCV during the 21 days after arrival was detected in 95% of the cattle tested.
Conclusions and Clinical Implications—Feedlot cattle infected with BCV after transport shed BCV from the respiratory tract and in the feces. Fecal shedding of BCV was associated with significantly reduced weight gain. Developing appropriate control measures for BCV infections could help reduce the decreased weight gain observed among infected feedlot cattle. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1436–1441)
Objective—To determine the association between respiratory tract infection with bovine coronavirus (BCV), treatment for respiratory tract disease, pulmonary lesions at slaughter, and average daily gain in cattle in feedlots.
Animals—837 calves in feedlots in Ohio and Texas.
Procedure—Nasal swab specimens were obtained from cattle at arrival in a feedlot (day 0) and at various times during the initial 28 days after arrival. Specimens were tested for BCV, using an antigencapture ELISA. Serum samples were obtained at arrival and again 28 days after arrival and tested for antibodies to BCV, using an antibody-detection ELISA. Information was collected regarding treatment for cattle with respiratory tract disease and average daily gain during the feeding period. Pulmonary lesions were evaluated at slaughter.
Results—Cattle shedding BCV from the nasal cavity and developing an antibody response against BCV were 1.6 times more likely to require treatment for respiratory tract disease than cattle that did not shed the virus or develop an immune response against BCV. Additionally, cattle that shed BCV from the nasal cavity were 2.2 times more likely to have pulmonary lesions at slaughter than cattle that did not shed the virus. The BCV shedding or seroconversion status did not affect average daily gain.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Bovine coronavirus infects feedlot cattle and is associated with an increased risk for cattle developing respiratory tract disease and pulmonary lesions. Development of appropriate control measures could help reduce the incidence of respiratory tract disease. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1062–1066)