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Objective—To compare anesthesia-related events associated with IV administration of 2 novel micellar microemulsion preparations (1% and 5%) and a commercially available formulation (1%) of propofol in horses.

Animals—9 healthy horses.

Procedures—On 3 occasions, each horse was anesthetized with 1 of the 3 propofol formulations (1% or 5% microemulsion or 1% commercial preparation). All horses received xylazine (1 mg/kg, IV), and anesthesia was induced with propofol (2 mg/kg, IV). Induction and recovery events were quantitatively and qualitatively assessed. Venous blood samples were obtained before and at intervals following anesthesia for quantification of clinicopathologic variables.

Results—Compared with the commercial formulation, the quality of anesthesia induction in horses was slightly better with the micellar microemulsion formulas. In contrast, recovery characteristics were qualitatively and quantitatively indistinguishable among treatment groups (eg, time to stand after anesthesia was 34.3 ± 7.3 minutes, 34.1 ± 8.8 minutes, and 39.0 ± 7.6 minutes in horses treated with the commercial formulation, 1% microemulsion, and 5% microemulsion, respectively). During recovery from anesthesia, all horses stood on the first attempt and walked within 5 minutes of standing. No clinically relevant changes in hematologic and serum biochemical analytes were detected during a 3-day period following anesthesia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that the micellar microemulsion preparation of propofol (1% or 5%) has similar anesthetic effects in horses, compared with the commercially available lipid propofol formulation. Additionally, the micellar microemulsion preparation is anticipated to have comparatively low production costs and can be manufactured in various concentrations.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To evaluate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of Lawsonia intracellularis DNA in feces and an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for detecting serum IgG antibodies in pigs exposed to L intracellularis.


15 seven-week-old pigs and 42 three-week-old pigs.


During 3 experiments, 23 pigs were inoculated with a pure culture of L intracellularis, 31 pigs served as noninoculated controls, and 3 pigs were used as sentinels. Fecal shedding of L intracellularis was monitored by use of PCR analysis at 7-day intervals. At euthanasia, the ileum was obtained for PCR and histologic analyses. Serum was obtained at 7-day intervals for use in the IFAT.


Polymerase chain reaction analysis detected L intracellularis DNA in the feces of 39% of the inoculated pigs; by postinoculation days 21 to 28, 90% of inoculated pigs developed IgG antibodies detected by IFAT. Neither L intracellularis DNA nor IgG antibodies were detected in any of the noninoculated control pigs at euthanasia. Sera from pigs inoculated with enteric pathogens other than L intracellularis did not contain detectable antibodies that reacted with L intracellularis by use of the IFAT.


The IFAT for L intracellularis IgG antibody detection appeared to be a more sensitive antemortem test for detecting pigs experimentally infected with L intracellularis than was a PCR method for direct detection of the organism in the feces.

Clinical Relevance

Not all animals that are infected with L intracellularis shed the organism in feces at detectable amounts. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:722-726)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research